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Solution Manual for Concepts of Database Management 9th Edition by Starks

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Solution Manual for Concepts of Database Management 9th Edition by Starks

Chapter One: Introduction to Database Management

A Guide to this Instructor’s Manual:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching experience through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter summary.

This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in red that you see in the textbook. Under each heading, you will find (in order): Lecture Notes that summarize the section, Figures and Boxes found in the section, if any, Teacher Tips, Classroom Activities, and Lab Activities. Pay special attention to TeacherTips and activities geared towards quizzing your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging experimentation within the software.

In addition to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources also include PowerPoint Presentations, Test Banks, Solutions to Exercises, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience. You can access Instructor Resources via the Web at login.cengage.com.

Table of Contents

Chapter Objectives1
1: BITS Company Background1
4: Database Solution2
10: Database Management Systems3
13: Advantages of Database Processing4
15: Disadvantages of Database Processing5
15: BigData5
16: Introduction to the colonial Adventure ToursDatabase Case6
21: Introduction to the Sports Physical Therapy Database Case6
End of Chapter Material7
Glossary of Key Terms7

Chapter Objectives

The learning objectives for chapter OneCare:

 

  • Introduce Burk IT Solutions (BITS), the company that is used as the basis for many of the examples throughout the text
  • Introduce basic database terminology
  • Describe database management systems (DBMSs)
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of database processing
  • Introduce Colonial Adventure Tours, the company that is used in a case that appears at the end of each chapter
  • Introduce Sports Physical Therapy, the company that is used in another case that appears at the end of each chapter

1: BITS Company Background

LECTURE NOTES

  • Describe the BITS company
  • Use Figure 1-1 to illustrate the problems associated with using spreadsheets to maintain this data
    • Redundancy
    • Difficulty accessing related data
    • Limited security features
    • Multiple updates
    • Size limitations
  • Define redundancy
    • Duplication of data or the storing of the same data in more than one place
  • Use the embedded Q & A on page 2 to discuss the problems redundancy causes
    • Wastes space
    • Makes changes more cumbersome
    • Can lead to inconsistencies
  • Use Figure 1-2 to introduce the type of data that BITS must be able to store and retrieve
    • Point out that the amounts in the Total column in Figure 1-2 are not stored in the database but are calculated

FIGURES: 1-1, 1-2

TEACHER TIPS

Students will work with BITS in every chapter. They should become familiar with this fictitious company and the type of data it needs to maintain. The same type of data needs to be stored by other consulting companies or service providers.

If you want to personalize the database, you have students add their name as a customer or you can have them rename the database using their own name rather than BITS.

CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

  1. Group Activities: Place students in groups and distribute order forms from local companies and/or retail stores. Ask the groups to determine the data the company must store and the data that is calculated.
  2. Class Discussion: Ask students what other types of data a service providers such as BITSwould need to maintain.
  3. Critical Thinking: BITS needs to maintain data on the consultants and what each one specializes in. Should BITS store this data in a spreadsheet? Why or why not?

4: Database Solution

LECTURE NOTES

  • Define entity
    • Person, place, object, event, or idea for which you want to store and process data
  • Define attribute
    • Characteristic or property of an entity
    • Also called a field or column in many database systems
  • Use Figure 1-3 to point out the Consultant and Client entity and the attributes for each entity
  • Define relationship
    • An association between entities
  • Define one-to-many relationship
    • Each rep is associated with many customers, but each customer is associated with only one rep
  • Use Figure 1-4 to explain the one-to-many relationship between consultants and clients
  • Define data file
    • A file used to store data, such as a spreadsheet or word-processed document
  • Define database
    • A structure that can store information about multiple types of entities, the attributes of those entities, and the relationships among the entities
  • Point out the differences between a data file and a database
  • Use Figure 1-5 to review the tables (entities) that make up the BITS database
    • Consultant, Client, Tasks, OrderLine, Work Orders
  • Use Figure 1-6 to illustrate the problems with storing orders in the alternative table structure
  • Review the embedded Q & As on pages 8 through 9
  • Define entity-relationship (E-R)diagram
    • A visual way to represent a database
  • Use Figure 1-7 to illustrate an E-R diagram and review the entities, attributes, and relationships in the BITS database

FIGURES: 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7

TEACHER TIPS

Database concepts such as entity, attribute, and relationship are often difficult for students to grasp. Use examples that students can relate to, for example, a school database or a database maintained by the state department of public safety (driver’s licenses). A good analogy to use is an employment application form. The items that we complete on the form are attributes, and the completed application (entity example) describes the person who completed it.

Figure 1-5 lists the five tables that make up the BITS database. Each table represents an entity. The data in the tables are related through common fields. It is these relationships that allow the user to access data from more than one table and produce reports, queries, and forms. Encourage students to use the embedded Q & As to test their understanding of the concepts as well as the design of the BITS database.

 

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DescriptionBy: Starks Edition: 9th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Coronel Edition: 13th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Brigham Edition: 15th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Swink Edition: 4th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: solution manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Cachon Edition: 2nd Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Heizer Edition: 10th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant Download
Content

Solution Manual for Concepts of Database Management 9th Edition by Starks

Chapter One: Introduction to Database Management

A Guide to this Instructor’s Manual:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching experience through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter summary. This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in red that you see in the textbook. Under each heading, you will find (in order): Lecture Notes that summarize the section, Figures and Boxes found in the section, if any, Teacher Tips, Classroom Activities, and Lab Activities. Pay special attention to TeacherTips and activities geared towards quizzing your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging experimentation within the software. In addition to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources also include PowerPoint Presentations, Test Banks, Solutions to Exercises, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience. You can access Instructor Resources via the Web at login.cengage.com. Table of Contents
Chapter Objectives1
1: BITS Company Background1
4: Database Solution2
10: Database Management Systems3
13: Advantages of Database Processing4
15: Disadvantages of Database Processing5
15: BigData5
16: Introduction to the colonial Adventure ToursDatabase Case6
21: Introduction to the Sports Physical Therapy Database Case6
End of Chapter Material7
Glossary of Key Terms7

Chapter Objectives

The learning objectives for chapter OneCare:  
  • Introduce Burk IT Solutions (BITS), the company that is used as the basis for many of the examples throughout the text
  • Introduce basic database terminology
  • Describe database management systems (DBMSs)
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of database processing
  • Introduce Colonial Adventure Tours, the company that is used in a case that appears at the end of each chapter
  • Introduce Sports Physical Therapy, the company that is used in another case that appears at the end of each chapter
1: BITS Company Background LECTURE NOTES
  • Describe the BITS company
  • Use Figure 1-1 to illustrate the problems associated with using spreadsheets to maintain this data
    • Redundancy
    • Difficulty accessing related data
    • Limited security features
    • Multiple updates
    • Size limitations
  • Define redundancy
    • Duplication of data or the storing of the same data in more than one place
  • Use the embedded Q & A on page 2 to discuss the problems redundancy causes
    • Wastes space
    • Makes changes more cumbersome
    • Can lead to inconsistencies
  • Use Figure 1-2 to introduce the type of data that BITS must be able to store and retrieve
    • Point out that the amounts in the Total column in Figure 1-2 are not stored in the database but are calculated
FIGURES: 1-1, 1-2 TEACHER TIPS Students will work with BITS in every chapter. They should become familiar with this fictitious company and the type of data it needs to maintain. The same type of data needs to be stored by other consulting companies or service providers. If you want to personalize the database, you have students add their name as a customer or you can have them rename the database using their own name rather than BITS. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
  1. Group Activities: Place students in groups and distribute order forms from local companies and/or retail stores. Ask the groups to determine the data the company must store and the data that is calculated.
  2. Class Discussion: Ask students what other types of data a service providers such as BITSwould need to maintain.
  3. Critical Thinking: BITS needs to maintain data on the consultants and what each one specializes in. Should BITS store this data in a spreadsheet? Why or why not?
4: Database Solution LECTURE NOTES
  • Define entity
    • Person, place, object, event, or idea for which you want to store and process data
  • Define attribute
    • Characteristic or property of an entity
    • Also called a field or column in many database systems
  • Use Figure 1-3 to point out the Consultant and Client entity and the attributes for each entity
  • Define relationship
    • An association between entities
  • Define one-to-many relationship
    • Each rep is associated with many customers, but each customer is associated with only one rep
  • Use Figure 1-4 to explain the one-to-many relationship between consultants and clients
  • Define data file
    • A file used to store data, such as a spreadsheet or word-processed document
  • Define database
    • A structure that can store information about multiple types of entities, the attributes of those entities, and the relationships among the entities
  • Point out the differences between a data file and a database
  • Use Figure 1-5 to review the tables (entities) that make up the BITS database
    • Consultant, Client, Tasks, OrderLine, Work Orders
  • Use Figure 1-6 to illustrate the problems with storing orders in the alternative table structure
  • Review the embedded Q & As on pages 8 through 9
  • Define entity-relationship (E-R)diagram
    • A visual way to represent a database
  • Use Figure 1-7 to illustrate an E-R diagram and review the entities, attributes, and relationships in the BITS database
FIGURES: 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7 TEACHER TIPS Database concepts such as entity, attribute, and relationship are often difficult for students to grasp. Use examples that students can relate to, for example, a school database or a database maintained by the state department of public safety (driver’s licenses). A good analogy to use is an employment application form. The items that we complete on the form are attributes, and the completed application (entity example) describes the person who completed it. Figure 1-5 lists the five tables that make up the BITS database. Each table represents an entity. The data in the tables are related through common fields. It is these relationships that allow the user to access data from more than one table and produce reports, queries, and forms. Encourage students to use the embedded Q & As to test their understanding of the concepts as well as the design of the BITS database.  

Solution Manual for Database Systems 13th Edition by Coronel

Appendix B  The University Lab: Conceptual Design  Discussion Focus What actions are taken during the database initial study, and why are those actions important to the database designer?  
NOTE We recommend that you use Appendix B’s Table B.1, “A Database Design Map for the University Computer Lab (UCL),” in this and all subsequent discussions about the design process. The design procedure summary should be used as a template in all design and implementation exercises, too. Student feedback indicates that this blueprint is especially helpful when it is used in conjunction with class projects. Use Appendix B’s Figure B.4, “The ER Model Segment for Business Rule 1,” to illustrate how the database design map was used to generate the initial ER diagram.  
The database initial study is essentially a process based on data gathering and analysis. Carefully conducted and systematic interviews usually constitute an important part of this process. The initial study must take its cues from an organization's key end-users. Therefore, one of the first initial study tasks is to establish who the organization's key end-users are. Once the key end-users are identified, the initial study must be conducted to establish the following outputs:
  • objectives
  • organizational structure
  • description of operations
  • definition of problems and constraints
  • description of system objectives
  • definition of system scope and boundaries
The database designer cannot expect to develop a usable design unless these outputs are carefully defined and delineated. The importance of having such a list of outputs is self‑explanatory. For example, a database design is not likely to be useful unless and until it accomplishes specific objectives and helps solve an organization's problems. The inherent assumption is that those problems are usually based on the lack of useful and timely information. The value of having such a list of required outputs is clear, too, because this list constitutes a checklist to be used by the database designer. The designer should not proceed with the database design until all the items on this list have been completed. What is the purpose of the conceptual design phase, and what is its end product? The conceptual design phase is the first of three database design phases: conceptual, logical, and physical. The purpose of the conceptual design phase is to develop the following outputs:
  • information sources and users
  • Information needs: user requirements
  • the initial ER model
  • the definition of attributes and domains
The conceptual design's end product is the initial ER diagram, which constitutes the preliminary database blueprint. It is very unlikely that useful logical and physical designs can be produced unless and until this blueprint has been completed. Too much "design" activity takes place without the benefit of a carefully developed database blueprint. Implementing a database without a good database blueprint almost invariably produces a lack of data integrity based on various data anomalies. In fact, it may easily be argued that implementing a successful database without a good database blueprint is just as likely as writing a great book by stringing randomly selected words together. Why is an initial ER model not likely to be the basis for the implementation of the database? ER modeling is an iterative process. The initial ER model may establish many of the appropriate entities and relationships, but it may be impossible to implement such relationships.  Also, given the nature of the ER modeling process, it is very likely that the end users begin to develop a greater understanding of their organization's operations, thus making it possible to establish additional entities and relationships. In fact, it may be argued that one very important benefit of ER modeling is based on the fact that it is an outstanding communications tool. In any case, before the ER model can be implemented, it must be carefully verified with respect to the business transactions and information requirements. (Note that students will learn how to develop the verification process in Appendix C.) Clearly, unless and until the ER model accurately reflects an organization's operations and requirements, the development of logical and physical designs is premature. After all, the database implementation is only as good as the final ER blueprint allows it to be! Answers to Review Questions
  1. What factors relevant to database design are uncovered during the initial study phase?
The database initial study phase yields the information required to determine an organization's needs, as well as the factors that influence data generation, collection, and processing.  Students must understand that this phase is generally concurrent with the planning phase of the SDLC and that, therefore, several of the initial study activities are common to both. The most important discovery of the initial study phase is the set of the company's objectives. Once the designer has a clear understanding of the company's main goals and its mission, (s)he can use this as the guide to making all subsequent decisions concerning the analysis, design, and implementation of the database and the information system. The initial study phase also establishes the company's organizational structure; the description of operations, problems and constraints, alternate solutions; system objectives; and the proposed system scope and boundaries. The organizational structure and the description of operations are interdependent because operations are usually a function of the company's organizational structure. The determination of structure and operations allows the designer to analyze the existing system and to describe a set of problems, constraints, and possible solutions. Naturally, the designer must find a feasible solution within the existing constraints.   In most cases, the best solution is not necessarily the most feasible one. The constraints also force the designer to narrow the focus on very specific problems that must be solved. In short, the combination of all the factors we have just discussed help the designer to put together a set of realistic, achievable, and measurable system objectives within the system's required scope and boundaries.

Test Bank for Fundamentals of Financial Management 15th Edition by Brigham

Note that there is an overlap between the T/F and multiple-choice questions, as some of the T/F statements are used in multiple-choice questions.   Multiple Choice: True/False  
 
1. In most corporations, the CFO ranks under the CEO.
a.True
b.False
 
ANSWER:  True
POINTS:  1
DIFFICULTY:  EASY
REFERENCES:  1-1 What Is Finance?
QUESTION TYPE:  True / False
HAS VARIABLES:  False
PREFACE NAME:  T/F
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  FOFM.BRIG.17.01.01 - What Is Finance?
NATIONAL STANDARDS:  United States - BUSPROG.FOFM.BRIG.17.06 - Reflective thinking
STATE STANDARDS:  United States - OH - DISC.FOFM.BRIG.17.06 - Finance function
LOCAL STANDARDS:  United States - OH - Default City - Students will understand and be - Students will understand and be able to articulate the goals of the firm, the role of the finance function in the enterprise's organization, and as an analyst using public information.
TOPICS:  Role of finance
KEYWORDS:  Bloom's Knowledge
DATE CREATED:  9/21/2017 3:15 PM
DATE MODIFIED:  9/21/2017 3:15 PM
 
2. The Chairman of the Board must also be the CEO.
a.True
b.False
 
ANSWER:  False
POINTS:  1
DIFFICULTY:  EASY
REFERENCES:  1-1 What Is Finance?
QUESTION TYPE:  True / False
HAS VARIABLES:  False
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:  FOFM.BRIG.17.01.01 - What Is Finance?
NATIONAL STANDARDS:  United States - BUSPROG.FOFM.BRIG.17.06 - Reflective thinking
STATE STANDARDS:  United States - OH - DISC.FOFM.BRIG.17.06 - Finance function
LOCAL STANDARDS:  United States - OH - Default City - Students will understand and be - Students will understand and be able to articulate the goals of the firm, the role of the finance function in the enterprise's organization, and as an analyst using public information.
TOPICS:  Role of finance
KEYWORDS:  Bloom's: Knowledge
DATE CREATED:  9/21/2017 3:15 PM
DATE MODIFIED:  9/21/2017 3:15 PM
 

Solution Manual for Managing Operations Across the Supply Chain 4th Edition by Swink

Chapter 1 Introduction to Managing Operations Across the Supply Chain  Suggested Answers to Discussion Questions
  1. Review Fortune magazine’s “Most Admired” American companies for 1959, 1979, 1999, and the most current year. (The issue normally appears in August each year.) Which companies have remained on the top throughout this period? Which ones have disappeared? What do you think led to the survival or demise of these companies?
The companies that have stayed on top throughout this period are Southwest, Berkshire Hathaway, and Proctor and Gamble. UPS, Coca Cola, and GE were some of the companies that disappeared. The companies that were able to stay at the top of the list were the ones able to deal with major changes in the industry easily. In order to stay afloat in harder times, they were managed by people who understood operations management; they had a winning value proposition that was continually revitalized by the introduction of new products and services.  The companies that did not stay at the top unable to make the necessary changes so easily; perhaps their operations management was not at the caliber of the other companies able to stay at the top of the list.
  1. Select two products that you have recently purchased; one should be a service and the other a manufactured good. Think about the process that you used to make the decision to purchase each item. What product characteristics were most important to you? What operational activities determine these characteristics?
  Student answers to this question will vary. The following is an example from one student: “Two products I have recently purchased were a sweater and a haircut. The process I used to make the decision to purchase the sweater was trying on the sweater in different colors, contemplating the purchase at home, waiting for sweater to go on sale, and then purchasing it. The process I used to make the decision about where to get my haircut included researching pictures of how I wanted my hair to look, asking advice about where to go from friends, researching online for reviews about stylists, and getting my haircut by that stylist. I wanted to make sure both products were going to satisfy me enough so that I wouldn’t regret either purchase. I had to be comfortable with both my sweater and my new hair style, luckily I was! I also wanted both my sweater and my hair style to last for a while to make them worth the cost. The operational activities that determine these characteristics are the manufacturing, shipping and selling the sweater in stores. If the sweater was poorly made and didn’t fit correctly, I would not have purchased it. If it was not available (on the shelf) I could not have purchased it.  The operational activities that determine the characteristics of my hairstyle are the stylist arriving to work on time for my appointment, washing, cutting and blow drying my hair in a way that I was expecting (having sufficient capacity so that I did not have to wait too long). Since my hair was cut and styled the way I requested, I will be returning to that hair stylist.
  1. What are the primary operations management decisions in each of the following corporations?

Solution Manual for Operations Management 2nd Edition by Cachon

Chapter 1 – Teaching Plan Introduction to operations management Specific Learning objectives LO1-1: Identify the drivers of customer utility LO1-2: Explaininefficiencies and determine if a firm is on the efficient frontier LO1-3: Explain the three system inhibitors LO1-4: Explain what work in operations management looks like LO1-5: Articulate the key operational decisions a firm needs to make to match supply with demand   What Students Learn in this Chapter This chapter is the beginning of the book, and most likely the corresponding session is the first session in the student’s first exposure to operations management. The goal of the session is for students to gain some appreciation of the type of operational decisions that a business has to make and to provide them some idea of what it will take to make these decisions well. To achieve this goal, we like to start with a perspective the student is familiar with. In most undergraduate settings, students will have little or no work experience. So, rather than starting with the perspective of the business, we find it more engaging to start with the perspective of the consumer. Faculty and students alike, all of us have been in the role of the customer in consumer-facing industries, such as restaurants, travel, healthcare, entertainment, or education. We suggest using the example of restaurants. Even if students have work experience, a common experience/example is helpful for discussion and all of us have been in some form of a restaurant. The book chapter takes the example of “where do you want to go for lunch today?” to establish the different dimensions driving customer utility. Once we understand what consumers value, we can start talking about the dimensions of operational performance. Students will see that there are multiple dimensions of operational performance. Some operations focus on responsiveness, some on quality, some on efficiency, etc. Unlike the case of finance, where we all agree that more profits are better than fewer profits, students will appreciate that there exist trade-offs among the operational dimensions of performance. Subway is operationally not better or worse than a five-star restaurant. It simply has a different strategy. The presence of trade-off then sets up the efficient frontier framework. Some firms are better at multiple things, others are worse. Typically, students have services that they like a lot (e.g. Starbucks or Chipotle) and oftentimes, those are services that are also financially successful. This allows for a discussion of what makes these services successful, which allows the faculty to introduce concepts such as waste, variability, and inflexibility.   Relationship to other Chapters This chapter is related to: Since this is the first chapter, it obviously does not build on other chapters. This chapter is the foundation for: The idea of the efficient frontier and the three system inhibitors is coming up throughout the book/the course. Introducing them on the first day of class is helpful, though not required.   Proposed Time Line Any time line will depend on the context of teaching, including the class size, the choice of exercise or case, the level of prior knowledge of the students, and the teaching style of the faculty. We have used the following time line for various audiences. This includes academic settings (business students), but also professional development settings with participants that learnt this material not to prepare for a test but to advance their careers. 0:00        Opening exercise (Mortgage exercise) 0:20        Dimensions of performance 0:30        The efficient frontier/Pareto dominance 0:40        The three system inhibitors 1:00        Course overview and course logistics   Preparation before class Set up exercise if you plan to use one. If mortgage exercise is used, send out an email to students ahead of time, announcing that (a) on time arrival is critical for the exercise (b) they should not touch any paper on the tables. If you plan to discuss the restaurant example, it might be helpful to do a quick Google news search on the big restaurant chains to have some current updates/examples.

Solution Manual for Principles of Operations Management 10th Edition by Heizer

C H A P T E R 1 Operations and Productivity DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. The text suggests four reasons to study OM. We want to understand (1) how people organize themselves for productive enterprise, (2) how goods and services are produced, (3) what operations managers do, and (4) this costly part of our economy and most enterprises. 2. Possible responses include: Adam Smith (work specialization/division of labor), Charles Babbage (work specialization/division of labor), Frederick W. Taylor (scientific management), Walter Shewart (statistical sampling and quality control), Henry Ford (moving assembly line), Charles Sorensen (moving assembly line), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (motion study), Eli Whitney (standardization). 3. See references in the answer to question 2. 4. The actual charts will differ, depending on the specific organization the student chooses to describe. The important thing is for students to recognize that all organizations require, to a greater or lesser extent, (a) the three primary functions of operations, finance/accounting, and marketing; and (b) that the emphasis or detailed breakdown of these functions is dependent on the specific competitive strategy employed by the firm. 5. The answer to this question may be similar to that for question 4. Here, however, the student should be encouraged to utilize a more detailed knowledge of a past employer and indicate on the chart additional information such as the number of persons employed to perform the various functions and, perhaps, the position of the functional areas within the overall organization hierarchy. 6. The basic functions of a firm are marketing, accounting/ finance, and operations. An interesting class discussion: “Do all firms/organizations (private, government, not-for-profit) perform these three functions?” The authors’ hypothesis is yes, they do. 7. The 10 decisions of operations management are product design, quality, process, location, layout, human resources, supplychain management, inventory, scheduling (aggregate and short term), maintenance. We find this structure an excellent way to help students organize and learn the material. 8. Four areas that are important to improving labor productivity are: (1) basic education (basic reading and math skills), (2) diet of the labor force, (3) social overhead that makes labor available (water, sanitation, transportation, etc.), and (4) maintaining and expanding the skills necessary for changing technology and knowledge, as well as for teamwork and motivation. 9. Productivity is harder to measure when the task becomes more intellectual. A knowledge society implies that work is more intellectual and therefore harder to measure. Because the U.S. (and many other countries) are increasingly “knowledge” societies, productivity is harder to measure. Using labor hours as a measure of productivity for a postindustrial society vs. an industrial or agriculture society is very different. For example, decades spent developing a marvelous new drug or winning a very difficult legal case on intellectual property rights may be significant for postindustrial societies, but not show much in the way of productivity improvement measured in labor hours. 10. Productivity is difficult to measure because precise units of measure may be lacking, quality may not be consistent, and exogenous variables may change. 11. Mass customization is the flexibility to produce in order to meet specific customer demands, without sacrificing the low cost of a product oriented process. Rapid product development is a source of competitive advantage. Both rely on agility within the organization. 12. Labor productivity in the service sector is hard to improve because (1) many services are labor intensive and (2) they are individually (personally) processed (the customer is paying for that service—the hair cut), (3) it may be an intellectual task performed by professionals, (4) it is often difficult to mechanize and automate, and (5) often difficult to evaluate for quality. 13. Taco Bell designed meals that were easy to prepare; with actual cooking and food preparation done elsewhere; automation to save preparation time; reduced floor space; manager training to increase span of control.
ETHICAL DILEMMA
With most of the ethical dilemmas in the text, the instructor should generate plenty of discussion with this dilemma. The authors are hesitant to endorse a particular correct answer. And students may well be on both side of this dilemma. Many students will be inclined to accept the child labor laws of their home country. For instance, Americans accept teenagers working. But Germans (and others) are more likely to expect teenagers to be home studying or in an apprentice program; they frown upon teenagers working. Students raised in more affluent environments may not understand children working. However, those who had to scrape by in their youth or had parents that did may be more sympathetic to 10-year-olds working. From an economic and self-preservation perspective many 10-year-olds do work and need to work. There are still a lot of poor people in the world. Such a decision may endorse the moral philosophy perspective defined as a Utilitarianism decision. A utilitarianism decision defines acceptable actions as those that maximize total utility, i.e., the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

2 CHAPTER 1 OP E R A T I O N S A N D P R O D U C T I V I T Y

6.6 (c) Increase in productivity = = 33.0% 20 From a U.S. corporate management perspective, companies cannot tolerate the publicity that goes with hiring 10-year-olds. These companies need to have standards that prohibit such actions by their subcontractors. The moral philosophy perspective might call this the virtue ethics position—the decision that a mature person with a good moral character would deem correct. END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS 120 boxes (a) = 3.0 boxes/hour 40 hours 1.1 125 boxes (b) = 3.125 boxes/hour 40 hours (c) Change in productivity = 0.125 boxes/hour (d) 0.125 boxes Percentage change = = 4.166% 3.0 1.2 (a) Labor productivity is 160 valves/80 hours = 2 valves per hour. (b) New labor productivity = 180 valves / 80 hours = 2.25 valves per hour (c) Percentage change in productivity = .25 valves / 2 valves = 12.5% 1.3 So 57,600 L = = 200 (160)(12)(0.15) laborers employed 1.4 Bureau of Labor Statistics (stats.bls.gov) is probably as good a place to start as any. Results will vary for each year, but overall data for the economy will range from .9% to 4.8% and mfg. could be as high as 5% and services between 1% and 2%. The data will vary even more for months or quarters. The data are frequently revised, often substantially. Units produced 100 pkgs (a) = = 20 pkgs/hour Input 5 1.5 133 pkgs (b) = 26.6 pkgs per hour 5 [(1,000/4,850) (1,000/4,510)] (1,000/4,850) − = 0.206–0.222 –0.016 = = 0.078 fewer resources 0.206 0.206 ⇒ 7.8% improvement* * with rounding to 3 decimal places. Output Productivity = Input
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