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Solution Manual for Database Systems 13th Edition by Coronel

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By: Coronel

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Solution Manual for Database Systems 13th Edition by Coronel

Appendix B

 The University Lab: Conceptual Design

 Discussion Focus

What actions are taken during the database initial study, and why are those actions important to the database designer?

 

NOTE

We recommend that you use Appendix B’s Table B.1, “A Database Design Map for the University Computer Lab (UCL),” in this and all subsequent discussions about the design process. The design procedure summary should be used as a template in all design and implementation exercises, too. Student feedback indicates that this blueprint is especially helpful when it is used in conjunction with class projects. Use Appendix B’s Figure B.4, “The ER Model Segment for Business Rule 1,” to illustrate how the database design map was used to generate the initial ER diagram.

 

The database initial study is essentially a process based on data gathering and analysis. Carefully conducted and systematic interviews usually constitute an important part of this process.

The initial study must take its cues from an organization’s key end-users. Therefore, one of the first initial study tasks is to establish who the organization’s key end-users are. Once the key end-users are identified, the initial study must be conducted to establish the following outputs:

  • objectives
  • organizational structure
  • description of operations
  • definition of problems and constraints
  • description of system objectives
  • definition of system scope and boundaries

The database designer cannot expect to develop a usable design unless these outputs are carefully defined and delineated. The importance of having such a list of outputs is self‑explanatory. For example, a database design is not likely to be useful unless and until it accomplishes specific objectives and helps solve an organization’s problems. The inherent assumption is that those problems are usually based on the lack of useful and timely information.

The value of having such a list of required outputs is clear, too, because this list constitutes a checklist to be used by the database designer. The designer should not proceed with the database design until all the items on this list have been completed.

What is the purpose of the conceptual design phase, and what is its end product?

The conceptual design phase is the first of three database design phases: conceptual, logical, and physical. The purpose of the conceptual design phase is to develop the following outputs:

  • information sources and users
  • Information needs: user requirements
  • the initial ER model
  • the definition of attributes and domains

The conceptual design’s end product is the initial ER diagram, which constitutes the preliminary database blueprint. It is very unlikely that useful logical and physical designs can be produced unless and until this blueprint has been completed.

Too much “design” activity takes place without the benefit of a carefully developed database blueprint. Implementing a database without a good database blueprint almost invariably produces a lack of data integrity based on various data anomalies. In fact, it may easily be argued that implementing a successful database without a good database blueprint is just as likely as writing a great book by stringing randomly selected words together.

Why is an initial ER model not likely to be the basis for the implementation of the database?

ER modeling is an iterative process. The initial ER model may establish many of the appropriate entities and relationships, but it may be impossible to implement such relationships.  Also, given the nature of the ER modeling process, it is very likely that the end users begin to develop a greater understanding of their organization’s operations, thus making it possible to establish additional entities and relationships.

In fact, it may be argued that one very important benefit of ER modeling is based on the fact that it is an outstanding communications tool. In any case, before the ER model can be implemented, it must be carefully verified with respect to the business transactions and information requirements. (Note that students will learn how to develop the verification process in Appendix C.)

Clearly, unless and until the ER model accurately reflects an organization’s operations and requirements, the development of logical and physical designs is premature. After all, the database implementation is only as good as the final ER blueprint allows it to be!

Answers to Review Questions

  1. What factors relevant to database design are uncovered during the initial study phase?

The database initial study phase yields the information required to determine an organization’s needs, as well as the factors that influence data generation, collection, and processing.  Students must understand that this phase is generally concurrent with the planning phase of the SDLC and that, therefore, several of the initial study activities are common to both.

The most important discovery of the initial study phase is the set of the company’s objectives. Once the designer has a clear understanding of the company’s main goals and its mission, (s)he can use this as the guide to making all subsequent decisions concerning the analysis, design, and implementation of the database and the information system.

The initial study phase also establishes the company’s organizational structure; the description of operations, problems and constraints, alternate solutions; system objectives; and the proposed system scope and boundaries.

The organizational structure and the description of operations are interdependent because operations are usually a function of the company’s organizational structure. The determination of structure and operations allows the designer to analyze the existing system and to describe a set of problems, constraints, and possible solutions.

Naturally, the designer must find a feasible solution within the existing constraints.   In most cases, the best solution is not necessarily the most feasible one. The constraints also force the designer to narrow the focus on very specific problems that must be solved.

In short, the combination of all the factors we have just discussed help the designer to put together a set of realistic, achievable, and measurable system objectives within the system’s required scope and boundaries.

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DescriptionBy: Coronel Edition: 13th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Starks Edition: 9th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant Download
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Solution Manual for Database Systems 13th Edition by Coronel

Appendix B  The University Lab: Conceptual Design  Discussion Focus What actions are taken during the database initial study, and why are those actions important to the database designer?  
NOTE We recommend that you use Appendix B’s Table B.1, “A Database Design Map for the University Computer Lab (UCL),” in this and all subsequent discussions about the design process. The design procedure summary should be used as a template in all design and implementation exercises, too. Student feedback indicates that this blueprint is especially helpful when it is used in conjunction with class projects. Use Appendix B’s Figure B.4, “The ER Model Segment for Business Rule 1,” to illustrate how the database design map was used to generate the initial ER diagram.  
The database initial study is essentially a process based on data gathering and analysis. Carefully conducted and systematic interviews usually constitute an important part of this process. The initial study must take its cues from an organization's key end-users. Therefore, one of the first initial study tasks is to establish who the organization's key end-users are. Once the key end-users are identified, the initial study must be conducted to establish the following outputs:
  • objectives
  • organizational structure
  • description of operations
  • definition of problems and constraints
  • description of system objectives
  • definition of system scope and boundaries
The database designer cannot expect to develop a usable design unless these outputs are carefully defined and delineated. The importance of having such a list of outputs is self‑explanatory. For example, a database design is not likely to be useful unless and until it accomplishes specific objectives and helps solve an organization's problems. The inherent assumption is that those problems are usually based on the lack of useful and timely information. The value of having such a list of required outputs is clear, too, because this list constitutes a checklist to be used by the database designer. The designer should not proceed with the database design until all the items on this list have been completed. What is the purpose of the conceptual design phase, and what is its end product? The conceptual design phase is the first of three database design phases: conceptual, logical, and physical. The purpose of the conceptual design phase is to develop the following outputs:
  • information sources and users
  • Information needs: user requirements
  • the initial ER model
  • the definition of attributes and domains
The conceptual design's end product is the initial ER diagram, which constitutes the preliminary database blueprint. It is very unlikely that useful logical and physical designs can be produced unless and until this blueprint has been completed. Too much "design" activity takes place without the benefit of a carefully developed database blueprint. Implementing a database without a good database blueprint almost invariably produces a lack of data integrity based on various data anomalies. In fact, it may easily be argued that implementing a successful database without a good database blueprint is just as likely as writing a great book by stringing randomly selected words together. Why is an initial ER model not likely to be the basis for the implementation of the database? ER modeling is an iterative process. The initial ER model may establish many of the appropriate entities and relationships, but it may be impossible to implement such relationships.  Also, given the nature of the ER modeling process, it is very likely that the end users begin to develop a greater understanding of their organization's operations, thus making it possible to establish additional entities and relationships. In fact, it may be argued that one very important benefit of ER modeling is based on the fact that it is an outstanding communications tool. In any case, before the ER model can be implemented, it must be carefully verified with respect to the business transactions and information requirements. (Note that students will learn how to develop the verification process in Appendix C.) Clearly, unless and until the ER model accurately reflects an organization's operations and requirements, the development of logical and physical designs is premature. After all, the database implementation is only as good as the final ER blueprint allows it to be! Answers to Review Questions
  1. What factors relevant to database design are uncovered during the initial study phase?
The database initial study phase yields the information required to determine an organization's needs, as well as the factors that influence data generation, collection, and processing.  Students must understand that this phase is generally concurrent with the planning phase of the SDLC and that, therefore, several of the initial study activities are common to both. The most important discovery of the initial study phase is the set of the company's objectives. Once the designer has a clear understanding of the company's main goals and its mission, (s)he can use this as the guide to making all subsequent decisions concerning the analysis, design, and implementation of the database and the information system. The initial study phase also establishes the company's organizational structure; the description of operations, problems and constraints, alternate solutions; system objectives; and the proposed system scope and boundaries. The organizational structure and the description of operations are interdependent because operations are usually a function of the company's organizational structure. The determination of structure and operations allows the designer to analyze the existing system and to describe a set of problems, constraints, and possible solutions. Naturally, the designer must find a feasible solution within the existing constraints.   In most cases, the best solution is not necessarily the most feasible one. The constraints also force the designer to narrow the focus on very specific problems that must be solved. In short, the combination of all the factors we have just discussed help the designer to put together a set of realistic, achievable, and measurable system objectives within the system's required scope and boundaries.

Solution Manual for Concepts of Database Management 9th Edition by Starks

Chapter One: Introduction to Database Management

A Guide to this Instructor’s Manual:

We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching experience through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter summary. This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in red that you see in the textbook. Under each heading, you will find (in order): Lecture Notes that summarize the section, Figures and Boxes found in the section, if any, Teacher Tips, Classroom Activities, and Lab Activities. Pay special attention to TeacherTips and activities geared towards quizzing your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging experimentation within the software. In addition to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources also include PowerPoint Presentations, Test Banks, Solutions to Exercises, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience. You can access Instructor Resources via the Web at login.cengage.com. Table of Contents
Chapter Objectives 1
1: BITS Company Background 1
4: Database Solution 2
10: Database Management Systems 3
13: Advantages of Database Processing 4
15: Disadvantages of Database Processing 5
15: BigData 5
16: Introduction to the colonial Adventure ToursDatabase Case 6
21: Introduction to the Sports Physical Therapy Database Case 6
End of Chapter Material 7
Glossary of Key Terms 7

Chapter Objectives

The learning objectives for chapter OneCare:  
  • Introduce Burk IT Solutions (BITS), the company that is used as the basis for many of the examples throughout the text
  • Introduce basic database terminology
  • Describe database management systems (DBMSs)
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of database processing
  • Introduce Colonial Adventure Tours, the company that is used in a case that appears at the end of each chapter
  • Introduce Sports Physical Therapy, the company that is used in another case that appears at the end of each chapter
1: BITS Company Background LECTURE NOTES
  • Describe the BITS company
  • Use Figure 1-1 to illustrate the problems associated with using spreadsheets to maintain this data
    • Redundancy
    • Difficulty accessing related data
    • Limited security features
    • Multiple updates
    • Size limitations
  • Define redundancy
    • Duplication of data or the storing of the same data in more than one place
  • Use the embedded Q & A on page 2 to discuss the problems redundancy causes
    • Wastes space
    • Makes changes more cumbersome
    • Can lead to inconsistencies
  • Use Figure 1-2 to introduce the type of data that BITS must be able to store and retrieve
    • Point out that the amounts in the Total column in Figure 1-2 are not stored in the database but are calculated
FIGURES: 1-1, 1-2 TEACHER TIPS Students will work with BITS in every chapter. They should become familiar with this fictitious company and the type of data it needs to maintain. The same type of data needs to be stored by other consulting companies or service providers. If you want to personalize the database, you have students add their name as a customer or you can have them rename the database using their own name rather than BITS. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
  1. Group Activities: Place students in groups and distribute order forms from local companies and/or retail stores. Ask the groups to determine the data the company must store and the data that is calculated.
  2. Class Discussion: Ask students what other types of data a service providers such as BITSwould need to maintain.
  3. Critical Thinking: BITS needs to maintain data on the consultants and what each one specializes in. Should BITS store this data in a spreadsheet? Why or why not?
4: Database Solution LECTURE NOTES
  • Define entity
    • Person, place, object, event, or idea for which you want to store and process data
  • Define attribute
    • Characteristic or property of an entity
    • Also called a field or column in many database systems
  • Use Figure 1-3 to point out the Consultant and Client entity and the attributes for each entity
  • Define relationship
    • An association between entities
  • Define one-to-many relationship
    • Each rep is associated with many customers, but each customer is associated with only one rep
  • Use Figure 1-4 to explain the one-to-many relationship between consultants and clients
  • Define data file
    • A file used to store data, such as a spreadsheet or word-processed document
  • Define database
    • A structure that can store information about multiple types of entities, the attributes of those entities, and the relationships among the entities
  • Point out the differences between a data file and a database
  • Use Figure 1-5 to review the tables (entities) that make up the BITS database
    • Consultant, Client, Tasks, OrderLine, Work Orders
  • Use Figure 1-6 to illustrate the problems with storing orders in the alternative table structure
  • Review the embedded Q & As on pages 8 through 9
  • Define entity-relationship (E-R)diagram
    • A visual way to represent a database
  • Use Figure 1-7 to illustrate an E-R diagram and review the entities, attributes, and relationships in the BITS database
FIGURES: 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7 TEACHER TIPS Database concepts such as entity, attribute, and relationship are often difficult for students to grasp. Use examples that students can relate to, for example, a school database or a database maintained by the state department of public safety (driver’s licenses). A good analogy to use is an employment application form. The items that we complete on the form are attributes, and the completed application (entity example) describes the person who completed it. Figure 1-5 lists the five tables that make up the BITS database. Each table represents an entity. The data in the tables are related through common fields. It is these relationships that allow the user to access data from more than one table and produce reports, queries, and forms. Encourage students to use the embedded Q & As to test their understanding of the concepts as well as the design of the BITS database.  
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