Solution Manual for Operations Management 13th Edition by Stevenson

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By: Stevenson

Edition: 13th Edition

Resource Type: Solution Manual

Solution Manual for Operations Management 13th Edition by Stevenson

chapter 19

Linear Programming

Teaching Notes

The main goal of this supplement is to provide students with an overview of the types of problems that have been solved using linear programming (LP). In the process of learning the different types of problems that can be solved with LP, students also must develop a very basic understanding of the assumptions and special features of LP problems of management test bank.

Students also should learn the basics of developing and formulating linear programming models for simple problems, solve two-variable linear programming problems by the graphical procedure, and interpret the resulting outcome. In the process of solving these graphical problems, we must stress the role and importance of extreme points in obtaining an optimal solution.

Improvements in computer hardware and software technology and the popularity of the software package Microsoft Excel make the use of computers in solving linear programming problems accessible to many users. Therefore, a main goal of the chapter should be to allow students to solve linear programming problems using Excel. More importantly, we need to ensure that students are able to interpret the results obtained from Excel or any another computer software package.

Answers to Discussion and Review Questions

1. Linear programming is well-suited to constrained optimization problems that satisfy the following assumptions:
2. Linearity: The impact of decision variables is linear in constraints and the objective function.
3. Divisibility: Noninteger values of decision variables are acceptable.
4. Certainty: Values of parameters are known and constant.
5. Nonnegativity: Negative values of decision variables are unacceptable.
6. The “area of feasibility,” or feasible solution space is the set of all combinations of values of the decision variables that satisfy all constraints. Hence, this area is determined by the constraints.
7. Redundant constraints do not affect the feasible region for a linear programming problem. Therefore, they can be dropped from a linear programming problem without affecting the feasible solution space or the optimal solution.
8. An iso-cost line represents the set of all possible combinations of two input decision variables that result in a given cost. Likewise, an iso-profit line represents all of the possible combinations of two output variables that results in a given profit.
9. Sliding an objective function line towards the origin represents a decrease in its value (i.e., lower cost, profit, etc.). Sliding an objective function line away from the origin represents an increase in its value.
10. a. Basic variable: In a linear programming solution, it is a variable not equal to zero.
11. Shadow price: It is the change in the value of the objective function for a one-unit change in the right-hand-side value of a constraint.
12. Range of feasibility: The range of values for the right-hand-side value of a constraint over which the shadow price remains the same.
13. Range of optimality: The range of values over which the solution quantities of all the decision variables remain the same.

Solution to Problems

1. a. Graph the constraints and the objective function:

Material constraint:

6x1 4x2 ≤ 48

Replace the inequality sign with an equal sign:

6x1 4x2 = 48

Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2:

6(0) 4x2 = 48

4x2 = 48

x2 = 12

One point on the line is (0, 12).

Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1:

6x1 4(0) = 48

6x1 = 48

x1 = 8

A second point on the line is (8,0).

Labor constraint:

4x1 8x2 ≤ 80

Replace the inequality sign with an equal sign:

4x1 8x2 = 80

Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2:

4(0) 8x2 = 80

8x2 = 80

x2 = 10

One point on the line is (0, 10).

Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1:

4x1 8(0) = 80

4x1 = 80

x1 = 20

A second point on the line is (20, 0).

Objective function:

Let 4x1 3x2 = 24.

Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2:

4(0) 3x2 = 24

3x2 = 24

x2 = 8

One point on the line is (0, 8).

Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1:

4x1 3(0) = 24

4x1 = 24

x1 = 6

A second point on the line is (6, 0).

The graph and the feasible solution space (shaded) are shown below:

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Solution Manual for Operations Management 13th Edition by Stevenson

chapter 19 Linear Programming Teaching Notes The main goal of this supplement is to provide students with an overview of the types of problems that have been solved using linear programming (LP). In the process of learning the different types of problems that can be solved with LP, students also must develop a very basic understanding of the assumptions and special features of LP problems of management test bank. Students also should learn the basics of developing and formulating linear programming models for simple problems, solve two-variable linear programming problems by the graphical procedure, and interpret the resulting outcome. In the process of solving these graphical problems, we must stress the role and importance of extreme points in obtaining an optimal solution. Improvements in computer hardware and software technology and the popularity of the software package Microsoft Excel make the use of computers in solving linear programming problems accessible to many users. Therefore, a main goal of the chapter should be to allow students to solve linear programming problems using Excel. More importantly, we need to ensure that students are able to interpret the results obtained from Excel or any another computer software package. Answers to Discussion and Review Questions
1. Linear programming is well-suited to constrained optimization problems that satisfy the following assumptions:
2. Linearity: The impact of decision variables is linear in constraints and the objective function.
3. Divisibility: Noninteger values of decision variables are acceptable.
4. Certainty: Values of parameters are known and constant.
5. Nonnegativity: Negative values of decision variables are unacceptable.
6. The “area of feasibility,” or feasible solution space is the set of all combinations of values of the decision variables that satisfy all constraints. Hence, this area is determined by the constraints.
7. Redundant constraints do not affect the feasible region for a linear programming problem. Therefore, they can be dropped from a linear programming problem without affecting the feasible solution space or the optimal solution.
8. An iso-cost line represents the set of all possible combinations of two input decision variables that result in a given cost. Likewise, an iso-profit line represents all of the possible combinations of two output variables that results in a given profit.
9. Sliding an objective function line towards the origin represents a decrease in its value (i.e., lower cost, profit, etc.). Sliding an objective function line away from the origin represents an increase in its value.
10. a. Basic variable: In a linear programming solution, it is a variable not equal to zero.
11. Shadow price: It is the change in the value of the objective function for a one-unit change in the right-hand-side value of a constraint.
12. Range of feasibility: The range of values for the right-hand-side value of a constraint over which the shadow price remains the same.
13. Range of optimality: The range of values over which the solution quantities of all the decision variables remain the same.
Solution to Problems
1. a. Graph the constraints and the objective function:
Material constraint: 6x1 4x2 ≤ 48 Replace the inequality sign with an equal sign: 6x1 4x2 = 48 Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2: 6(0) 4x2 = 48 4x2 = 48 x2 = 12 One point on the line is (0, 12). Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1: 6x1 4(0) = 48 6x1 = 48 x1 = 8 A second point on the line is (8,0).   Labor constraint: 4x1 8x2 ≤ 80 Replace the inequality sign with an equal sign: 4x1 8x2 = 80 Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2: 4(0) 8x2 = 80 8x2 = 80 x2 = 10 One point on the line is (0, 10). Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1: 4x1 8(0) = 80 4x1 = 80 x1 = 20 A second point on the line is (20, 0).   Objective function: Let 4x1 3x2 = 24. Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2: 4(0) 3x2 = 24 3x2 = 24 x2 = 8 One point on the line is (0, 8). Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1: 4x1 3(0) = 24 4x1 = 24 x1 = 6 A second point on the line is (6, 0).   The graph and the feasible solution space (shaded) are shown below:

Solution Manual for Operations Management 6th CANADIAN Edition by Stevenson

Chapter No 1 INTRODUCTION TO Operations Management Teaching Notes The initial meeting with the class (the first chapter) is primarily to overview the course (and textbook), and to introduce the instructor and his/her interest in Operations Management (OM). The course outline (syllabus), the objectives of the course and topics, chapters, and pages of text covered in the course, as well as problems/mini-cases, to be done in class, videos to watch, Excel worksheets to use, etc. are announced to the class. Many students may know little about OM and the types of jobs available. This point can be addressed in order to generate enthusiasm for the course. The Learning Objectives at the beginning of the chapter indicate the highlights of the chapter. Answers to Discussion and Review Questions
1. Operations management is the management of processes (i.e., the sequence of activities and resources)that create goods and/or provide services.

1. Production/operations planner/scheduler/controller, demand planner (forecaster), quality specialist, logistics coordinator, purchasing agent/buyer, supply chain manager, materials planner, inventory clerk/manager, production/operations manager.

1. a.       Because a large % of a company’s expenses occur in the operations, e.g., purchasing materials and workforce salaries, more efficient operations can result in large increases in profits.
2. A number of management jobs are in OM.
3. Activities in all other areas of any organization are all interrelated with OM.
4. Operations innovations lead to the marketplace and strategic benefits.
5. The three major functions of organizations are operations, finance, and marketing. Operations is concerned with the creation of goods and services identified by marketing, finance is concerned with the provision of funds necessary for operations and investment of extra funds, and marketing is concerned with promoting and/or selling goods or services.
6. The operations function consists of all activities that are directly related to producing goods or providing services. It adds value during the transformation process (the difference between the cost of inputs and the price of outputs). An operations manager manages the transformation function.                                                             He/she is responsible for planning and using the resources (labor, machines, and materials). The kind of work that operations managers do varies from organization to organization (largely because of the different goods or services involved). For example, a store/restaurant manager is in effect an operations manager. See Figure 1-6 for examples of typical activities performed by operations managers.
7. Design decisions are usually strategic and long term (1–5 years or so ahead), whereas planning and control decisions are shorter term. In particular, planning decisions are tactical and medium-term (1–12 months or so ahead), and control decisions (including scheduling and execution) are short term (1–12 weeks or so ahead). Design involves decisions that relate to goods and service design, capacity, acquisition of equipment, the arrangement of departments, and location of facilities.Planning/control activities involve management of personnel, quality control/assurance, inventory planning and control, production planning, and scheduling.

Solution Manual for Managing Operations Across the Supply Chain 4th Edition by Swink

Chapter 1 Introduction to Managing Operations Across the Supply Chain  Suggested Answers to Discussion Questions
1. Review Fortune magazine’s “Most Admired” American companies for 1959, 1979, 1999, and the most current year. (The issue normally appears in August each year.) Which companies have remained on the top throughout this period? Which ones have disappeared? What do you think led to the survival or demise of these companies?
The companies that have stayed on top throughout this period are Southwest, Berkshire Hathaway, and Proctor and Gamble. UPS, Coca Cola, and GE were some of the companies that disappeared. The companies that were able to stay at the top of the list were the ones able to deal with major changes in the industry easily. In order to stay afloat in harder times, they were managed by people who understood operations management; they had a winning value proposition that was continually revitalized by the introduction of new products and services.  The companies that did not stay at the top unable to make the necessary changes so easily; perhaps their operations management was not at the caliber of the other companies able to stay at the top of the list.
1. Select two products that you have recently purchased; one should be a service and the other a manufactured good. Think about the process that you used to make the decision to purchase each item. What product characteristics were most important to you? What operational activities determine these characteristics?
Student answers to this question will vary. The following is an example from one student: “Two products I have recently purchased were a sweater and a haircut. The process I used to make the decision to purchase the sweater was trying on the sweater in different colors, contemplating the purchase at home, waiting for sweater to go on sale, and then purchasing it. The process I used to make the decision about where to get my haircut included researching pictures of how I wanted my hair to look, asking advice about where to go from friends, researching online for reviews about stylists, and getting my haircut by that stylist. I wanted to make sure both products were going to satisfy me enough so that I wouldn’t regret either purchase. I had to be comfortable with both my sweater and my new hair style, luckily I was! I also wanted both my sweater and my hair style to last for a while to make them worth the cost. The operational activities that determine these characteristics are the manufacturing, shipping and selling the sweater in stores. If the sweater was poorly made and didn’t fit correctly, I would not have purchased it. If it was not available (on the shelf) I could not have purchased it.  The operational activities that determine the characteristics of my hairstyle are the stylist arriving to work on time for my appointment, washing, cutting and blow drying my hair in a way that I was expecting (having sufficient capacity so that I did not have to wait too long). Since my hair was cut and styled the way I requested, I will be returning to that hair stylist.
1. What are the primary operations management decisions in each of the following corporations?

Solution Manual for Strategic Brand Management Building Measuring 4th edition

Design a valuable brand star by building, measuring, and managing brand equity Kevin LeneKeller is one of the global leaders in strategic management and integrated marketing communications. In Strategic Brand Management: Creating, Managing, and Monitoring Buildings, 4thEdition by Kevin lane Keller flash at the browser from a consumer perspective and provides a framework that helps learners and managers identify brand quality, Define and measure. Using a gateway from the knowledge of both learning and industry experts, the text conveys on reputable examples and commercial studies of markets in the US and around the world.          Strategic brand management by Kevin Lene Keller exposes Brand is basically a dimension differ in some way from other products designed to meet some needs. These differed encase may be tangible and non-tangible related to an item quality of brand—-or more symbolic and emotional, a customer this thing keep in mind before purchasing a product. It usually contains several examples on each topic, and 75 short branching’s of branding that recognizes successful series and explains why they are so. Case readers will get acquainted with real-life news with Leaky Dockers, Intel Corporation, Nivea, Nike, and Starbucks. Brand managers to industry professionals for market marketing executives. Strategic brand management by Kevin Lene Keller exposes Brand is basically a dimension differ in some way from other products designed to meet some needs. These differed encase may be tangible and non-tangible related to an item quality of brand—-or more symbolic and emotional, a customer this thing keep in mind before purchasing a product. Industry thinking and developments, brand genuine and strategic branding research combines a comprehensive theoretical foundation with this comprehensive ongoing and long-term best-practice decision. Long-term exclusive brand strategy. Generally focused on how and why, it provides specific strategic guidance for planning, building, measuring, and managing brand equity.

Solution Manual for Principles of Supply Chain Management 5th Edition by Wisner

PRINCIPLES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: A BALANCED APPROACH, 5thEd. Answers to Questions/Problems Chapter One

Discussion Questions

1. Define the term supply chain management in your own words, and list its most important activities.
Ans.: The Supply-Chain Council’s definition of supply chain management is“[m]anaging supply and demand, sourcing raw materials and parts, manufacturing and assembly, warehousing and inventory tracking, order entry and order management, distribution across all channels, and delivery to the customer. These are also the most important activities, however integration of key supply chain processes might also be included in there.
1. Can a small business like a local sandwich or bicycle shop benefit from practicing supply chain management?What would they most likely concentrate on?
Ans.: Yes, any organization can implement at least some of the important concepts. A good place to start is the rationalization or reduction of the supply base. Small businesses might also want to concentrate on customers as a starting point.
1. Describe and draw a supply chain for a bicycle repair shop and list the important supply chain members.
Ans.: This will vary from student to student, but should include for instance parts suppliers, bicycle suppliers and other suppliers (ie, helmet suppliers) and services (ie, repair services) as 1st-tier suppliers and bicycle owners as 1st-tier customers.
1. Can a bicycle repair shop have more than one supply chain? Explain.
Ans.: Yes. Every repair item the firm stocks has potentially a different supply chain associated with it.
1. What roles do “collaboration” and “trust” play in the practice of supply chain management?
Ans.: This is essential for process integration. Sharing information and determining joint strategies is part of the integration/collaboration process, and to do this, trust must be present between the customer/focal firm/supplier.
1. Why don’t firms just become more vertically integrated (eg. buy out suppliers and customers), instead of trying to manage their supply chains?
Ans.: This could cause a loss of focus and keep managers/employees from doing their core competencies, resulting in loss of performance.
1. What types of organizations would benefit the most from practicing supply chain management? What sorts of improvements could be expected?
Ans.: Firms with many suppliers, many complex products, large inventories and many customers (in other words, firms with many supply chains). Gains would be lower purchasing costs, lower carrying costs, better product quality, and better customer service.
1. What are the benefits of supply chain management?
Ans.: Reduction of the bullwhip effect, better buyer/supplier relationships, better quality, lower costs, better customer service, higher demand, more profits.
1. Can nonprofit, educational, or government organizations benefit from supply chain management? How?
Ans.: Yes. All services and organizations can benefit in terms of at least better customer service, better inventory management, and cheaper purchase prices.

Solution Manual for Practical Management Science 6th Edition by Winston

Table of Contents 1. Introduction to Modeling. 2. Introduction to Spreadsheet Modeling. 3. Introduction to Optimization Modeling. 4. Linear Programming Models. 5. Network Models. 6. Optimization Models with Integer Variables. 7. Nonlinear Optimization Models. 8. Evolutionary Solver: An Alternative Optimization Procedure. 9. Decision Making Under Uncertainty. 10. Introduction to Simulation Modeling. 11. Simulation Models. 12. Queueing Models. 13. Regression and Forecasting Models. 14. Data Mining 15. Project Management 16. Multiobjective Decision Making 17. Inventory and Supply Chain Models
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