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Solution Manual for Operations Management 2nd Edition by Cachon

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By: Cachon

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Solution Manual for Operations Management 2nd Edition by Cachon

Chapter 1 – Teaching Plan

Introduction to operations management

Specific Learning objectives

LO1-1: Identify the drivers of customer utility

LO1-2: Explaininefficiencies and determine if a firm is on the efficient frontier

LO1-3: Explain the three system inhibitors

LO1-4: Explain what work in operations management looks like

LO1-5: Articulate the key operational decisions a firm needs to make to match supply with demand

 

What Students Learn in this Chapter

This chapter is the beginning of the book, and most likely the corresponding session is the first session in the student’s first exposure to operations management. The goal of the session is for students to gain some appreciation of the type of operational decisions that a business has to make and to provide them some idea of what it will take to make these decisions well.

To achieve this goal, we like to start with a perspective the student is familiar with. In most undergraduate settings, students will have little or no work experience. So, rather than starting with the perspective of the business, we find it more engaging to start with the perspective of the consumer. Faculty and students alike, all of us have been in the role of the customer in consumer-facing industries, such as restaurants, travel, healthcare, entertainment, or education. We suggest using the example of restaurants. Even if students have work experience, a common experience/example is helpful for discussion and all of us have been in some form of a restaurant.

The book chapter takes the example of “where do you want to go for lunch today?” to establish the different dimensions driving customer utility. Once we understand what consumers value, we can start talking about the dimensions of operational performance. Students will see that there are multiple dimensions of operational performance. Some operations focus on responsiveness, some on quality, some on efficiency, etc. Unlike the case of finance, where we all agree that more profits are better than fewer profits, students will appreciate that there exist trade-offs among the operational dimensions of performance. Subway is operationally not better or worse than a five-star restaurant. It simply has a different strategy.

The presence of trade-off then sets up the efficient frontier framework. Some firms are better at multiple things, others are worse. Typically, students have services that they like a lot (e.g. Starbucks or Chipotle) and oftentimes, those are services that are also financially successful. This allows for a discussion of what makes these services successful, which allows the faculty to introduce concepts such as waste, variability, and inflexibility.

 

Relationship to other Chapters

This chapter is related to:

Since this is the first chapter, it obviously does not build on other chapters.

This chapter is the foundation for:

The idea of the efficient frontier and the three system inhibitors is coming up throughout the book/the course. Introducing them on the first day of class is helpful, though not required.

 

Proposed Time Line

Any time line will depend on the context of teaching, including the class size, the choice of exercise or case, the level of prior knowledge of the students, and the teaching style of the faculty. We have used the following time line for various audiences. This includes academic settings (business students), but also professional development settings with participants that learnt this material not to prepare for a test but to advance their careers.

0:00        Opening exercise (Mortgage exercise)

0:20        Dimensions of performance

0:30        The efficient frontier/Pareto dominance

0:40        The three system inhibitors

1:00        Course overview and course logistics

 

Preparation before class

Set up exercise if you plan to use one.

If mortgage exercise is used, send out an email to students ahead of time, announcing that (a) on time arrival is critical for the exercise (b) they should not touch any paper on the tables.

If you plan to discuss the restaurant example, it might be helpful to do a quick Google news search on the big restaurant chains to have some current updates/examples.

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DescriptionBy: Cachon Edition: 2nd Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Heizer Edition: 10th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Stevenson Edition: 13th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadEdition: 4th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution Manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Wisner Edition: 5th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Stevenson Edition: 6th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant Download
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Solution Manual for Operations Management 2nd Edition by Cachon

Chapter 1 – Teaching Plan Introduction to operations management Specific Learning objectives LO1-1: Identify the drivers of customer utility LO1-2: Explaininefficiencies and determine if a firm is on the efficient frontier LO1-3: Explain the three system inhibitors LO1-4: Explain what work in operations management looks like LO1-5: Articulate the key operational decisions a firm needs to make to match supply with demand   What Students Learn in this Chapter This chapter is the beginning of the book, and most likely the corresponding session is the first session in the student’s first exposure to operations management. The goal of the session is for students to gain some appreciation of the type of operational decisions that a business has to make and to provide them some idea of what it will take to make these decisions well. To achieve this goal, we like to start with a perspective the student is familiar with. In most undergraduate settings, students will have little or no work experience. So, rather than starting with the perspective of the business, we find it more engaging to start with the perspective of the consumer. Faculty and students alike, all of us have been in the role of the customer in consumer-facing industries, such as restaurants, travel, healthcare, entertainment, or education. We suggest using the example of restaurants. Even if students have work experience, a common experience/example is helpful for discussion and all of us have been in some form of a restaurant. The book chapter takes the example of “where do you want to go for lunch today?” to establish the different dimensions driving customer utility. Once we understand what consumers value, we can start talking about the dimensions of operational performance. Students will see that there are multiple dimensions of operational performance. Some operations focus on responsiveness, some on quality, some on efficiency, etc. Unlike the case of finance, where we all agree that more profits are better than fewer profits, students will appreciate that there exist trade-offs among the operational dimensions of performance. Subway is operationally not better or worse than a five-star restaurant. It simply has a different strategy. The presence of trade-off then sets up the efficient frontier framework. Some firms are better at multiple things, others are worse. Typically, students have services that they like a lot (e.g. Starbucks or Chipotle) and oftentimes, those are services that are also financially successful. This allows for a discussion of what makes these services successful, which allows the faculty to introduce concepts such as waste, variability, and inflexibility.   Relationship to other Chapters This chapter is related to: Since this is the first chapter, it obviously does not build on other chapters. This chapter is the foundation for: The idea of the efficient frontier and the three system inhibitors is coming up throughout the book/the course. Introducing them on the first day of class is helpful, though not required.   Proposed Time Line Any time line will depend on the context of teaching, including the class size, the choice of exercise or case, the level of prior knowledge of the students, and the teaching style of the faculty. We have used the following time line for various audiences. This includes academic settings (business students), but also professional development settings with participants that learnt this material not to prepare for a test but to advance their careers. 0:00        Opening exercise (Mortgage exercise) 0:20        Dimensions of performance 0:30        The efficient frontier/Pareto dominance 0:40        The three system inhibitors 1:00        Course overview and course logistics   Preparation before class Set up exercise if you plan to use one. If mortgage exercise is used, send out an email to students ahead of time, announcing that (a) on time arrival is critical for the exercise (b) they should not touch any paper on the tables. If you plan to discuss the restaurant example, it might be helpful to do a quick Google news search on the big restaurant chains to have some current updates/examples.

Solution Manual for Principles of Operations Management 10th Edition by Heizer

C H A P T E R 1 Operations and Productivity DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. The text suggests four reasons to study OM. We want to understand (1) how people organize themselves for productive enterprise, (2) how goods and services are produced, (3) what operations managers do, and (4) this costly part of our economy and most enterprises. 2. Possible responses include: Adam Smith (work specialization/division of labor), Charles Babbage (work specialization/division of labor), Frederick W. Taylor (scientific management), Walter Shewart (statistical sampling and quality control), Henry Ford (moving assembly line), Charles Sorensen (moving assembly line), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (motion study), Eli Whitney (standardization). 3. See references in the answer to question 2. 4. The actual charts will differ, depending on the specific organization the student chooses to describe. The important thing is for students to recognize that all organizations require, to a greater or lesser extent, (a) the three primary functions of operations, finance/accounting, and marketing; and (b) that the emphasis or detailed breakdown of these functions is dependent on the specific competitive strategy employed by the firm. 5. The answer to this question may be similar to that for question 4. Here, however, the student should be encouraged to utilize a more detailed knowledge of a past employer and indicate on the chart additional information such as the number of persons employed to perform the various functions and, perhaps, the position of the functional areas within the overall organization hierarchy. 6. The basic functions of a firm are marketing, accounting/ finance, and operations. An interesting class discussion: “Do all firms/organizations (private, government, not-for-profit) perform these three functions?” The authors’ hypothesis is yes, they do. 7. The 10 decisions of operations management are product design, quality, process, location, layout, human resources, supplychain management, inventory, scheduling (aggregate and short term), maintenance. We find this structure an excellent way to help students organize and learn the material. 8. Four areas that are important to improving labor productivity are: (1) basic education (basic reading and math skills), (2) diet of the labor force, (3) social overhead that makes labor available (water, sanitation, transportation, etc.), and (4) maintaining and expanding the skills necessary for changing technology and knowledge, as well as for teamwork and motivation. 9. Productivity is harder to measure when the task becomes more intellectual. A knowledge society implies that work is more intellectual and therefore harder to measure. Because the U.S. (and many other countries) are increasingly “knowledge” societies, productivity is harder to measure. Using labor hours as a measure of productivity for a postindustrial society vs. an industrial or agriculture society is very different. For example, decades spent developing a marvelous new drug or winning a very difficult legal case on intellectual property rights may be significant for postindustrial societies, but not show much in the way of productivity improvement measured in labor hours. 10. Productivity is difficult to measure because precise units of measure may be lacking, quality may not be consistent, and exogenous variables may change. 11. Mass customization is the flexibility to produce in order to meet specific customer demands, without sacrificing the low cost of a product oriented process. Rapid product development is a source of competitive advantage. Both rely on agility within the organization. 12. Labor productivity in the service sector is hard to improve because (1) many services are labor intensive and (2) they are individually (personally) processed (the customer is paying for that service—the hair cut), (3) it may be an intellectual task performed by professionals, (4) it is often difficult to mechanize and automate, and (5) often difficult to evaluate for quality. 13. Taco Bell designed meals that were easy to prepare; with actual cooking and food preparation done elsewhere; automation to save preparation time; reduced floor space; manager training to increase span of control.
ETHICAL DILEMMA
With most of the ethical dilemmas in the text, the instructor should generate plenty of discussion with this dilemma. The authors are hesitant to endorse a particular correct answer. And students may well be on both side of this dilemma. Many students will be inclined to accept the child labor laws of their home country. For instance, Americans accept teenagers working. But Germans (and others) are more likely to expect teenagers to be home studying or in an apprentice program; they frown upon teenagers working. Students raised in more affluent environments may not understand children working. However, those who had to scrape by in their youth or had parents that did may be more sympathetic to 10-year-olds working. From an economic and self-preservation perspective many 10-year-olds do work and need to work. There are still a lot of poor people in the world. Such a decision may endorse the moral philosophy perspective defined as a Utilitarianism decision. A utilitarianism decision defines acceptable actions as those that maximize total utility, i.e., the greatest good for the greatest number of people.

2 CHAPTER 1 OP E R A T I O N S A N D P R O D U C T I V I T Y

6.6 (c) Increase in productivity = = 33.0% 20 From a U.S. corporate management perspective, companies cannot tolerate the publicity that goes with hiring 10-year-olds. These companies need to have standards that prohibit such actions by their subcontractors. The moral philosophy perspective might call this the virtue ethics position—the decision that a mature person with a good moral character would deem correct. END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS 120 boxes (a) = 3.0 boxes/hour 40 hours 1.1 125 boxes (b) = 3.125 boxes/hour 40 hours (c) Change in productivity = 0.125 boxes/hour (d) 0.125 boxes Percentage change = = 4.166% 3.0 1.2 (a) Labor productivity is 160 valves/80 hours = 2 valves per hour. (b) New labor productivity = 180 valves / 80 hours = 2.25 valves per hour (c) Percentage change in productivity = .25 valves / 2 valves = 12.5% 1.3 So 57,600 L = = 200 (160)(12)(0.15) laborers employed 1.4 Bureau of Labor Statistics (stats.bls.gov) is probably as good a place to start as any. Results will vary for each year, but overall data for the economy will range from .9% to 4.8% and mfg. could be as high as 5% and services between 1% and 2%. The data will vary even more for months or quarters. The data are frequently revised, often substantially. Units produced 100 pkgs (a) = = 20 pkgs/hour Input 5 1.5 133 pkgs (b) = 26.6 pkgs per hour 5 [(1,000/4,850) (1,000/4,510)] (1,000/4,850) − = 0.206–0.222 –0.016 = = 0.078 fewer resources 0.206 0.206 ⇒ 7.8% improvement* * with rounding to 3 decimal places. Output Productivity = Input

Solution Manual for Operations Management 13th Edition by Stevenson

chapter 19 Linear Programming Teaching Notes The main goal of this supplement is to provide students with an overview of the types of problems that have been solved using linear programming (LP). In the process of learning the different types of problems that can be solved with LP, students also must develop a very basic understanding of the assumptions and special features of LP problems of management test bank. Students also should learn the basics of developing and formulating linear programming models for simple problems, solve two-variable linear programming problems by the graphical procedure, and interpret the resulting outcome. In the process of solving these graphical problems, we must stress the role and importance of extreme points in obtaining an optimal solution. Improvements in computer hardware and software technology and the popularity of the software package Microsoft Excel make the use of computers in solving linear programming problems accessible to many users. Therefore, a main goal of the chapter should be to allow students to solve linear programming problems using Excel. More importantly, we need to ensure that students are able to interpret the results obtained from Excel or any another computer software package. Answers to Discussion and Review Questions
  1. Linear programming is well-suited to constrained optimization problems that satisfy the following assumptions:
  2. Linearity: The impact of decision variables is linear in constraints and the objective function.
  3. Divisibility: Noninteger values of decision variables are acceptable.
  4. Certainty: Values of parameters are known and constant.
  5. Nonnegativity: Negative values of decision variables are unacceptable.
  6. The “area of feasibility,” or feasible solution space is the set of all combinations of values of the decision variables that satisfy all constraints. Hence, this area is determined by the constraints.
  7. Redundant constraints do not affect the feasible region for a linear programming problem. Therefore, they can be dropped from a linear programming problem without affecting the feasible solution space or the optimal solution.
  8. An iso-cost line represents the set of all possible combinations of two input decision variables that result in a given cost. Likewise, an iso-profit line represents all of the possible combinations of two output variables that results in a given profit.
  9. Sliding an objective function line towards the origin represents a decrease in its value (i.e., lower cost, profit, etc.). Sliding an objective function line away from the origin represents an increase in its value.
  10. a. Basic variable: In a linear programming solution, it is a variable not equal to zero.
  11. Shadow price: It is the change in the value of the objective function for a one-unit change in the right-hand-side value of a constraint.
  12. Range of feasibility: The range of values for the right-hand-side value of a constraint over which the shadow price remains the same.
  13. Range of optimality: The range of values over which the solution quantities of all the decision variables remain the same.
Solution to Problems
  1. a. Graph the constraints and the objective function:
  Material constraint: 6x1 4x2 ≤ 48 Replace the inequality sign with an equal sign: 6x1 4x2 = 48 Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2: 6(0) 4x2 = 48 4x2 = 48 x2 = 12 One point on the line is (0, 12). Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1: 6x1 4(0) = 48 6x1 = 48 x1 = 8 A second point on the line is (8,0).   Labor constraint: 4x1 8x2 ≤ 80 Replace the inequality sign with an equal sign: 4x1 8x2 = 80 Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2: 4(0) 8x2 = 80 8x2 = 80 x2 = 10 One point on the line is (0, 10). Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1: 4x1 8(0) = 80 4x1 = 80 x1 = 20 A second point on the line is (20, 0).   Objective function: Let 4x1 3x2 = 24. Set x1 = 0 and solve for x2: 4(0) 3x2 = 24 3x2 = 24 x2 = 8 One point on the line is (0, 8). Set x2 = 0 and solve for x1: 4x1 3(0) = 24 4x1 = 24 x1 = 6 A second point on the line is (6, 0).   The graph and the feasible solution space (shaded) are shown below:

Solution Manual for Strategic Brand Management Building Measuring 4th edition

Design a valuable brand star by building, measuring, and managing brand equity Kevin LeneKeller is one of the global leaders in strategic management and integrated marketing communications. In Strategic Brand Management: Creating, Managing, and Monitoring Buildings, 4thEdition by Kevin lane Keller flash at the browser from a consumer perspective and provides a framework that helps learners and managers identify brand quality, Define and measure. Using a gateway from the knowledge of both learning and industry experts, the text conveys on reputable examples and commercial studies of markets in the US and around the world.          Strategic brand management by Kevin Lene Keller exposes Brand is basically a dimension differ in some way from other products designed to meet some needs. These differed encase may be tangible and non-tangible related to an item quality of brand—-or more symbolic and emotional, a customer this thing keep in mind before purchasing a product. It usually contains several examples on each topic, and 75 short branching’s of branding that recognizes successful series and explains why they are so. Case readers will get acquainted with real-life news with Leaky Dockers, Intel Corporation, Nivea, Nike, and Starbucks. Brand managers to industry professionals for market marketing executives. Strategic brand management by Kevin Lene Keller exposes Brand is basically a dimension differ in some way from other products designed to meet some needs. These differed encase may be tangible and non-tangible related to an item quality of brand—-or more symbolic and emotional, a customer this thing keep in mind before purchasing a product. Industry thinking and developments, brand genuine and strategic branding research combines a comprehensive theoretical foundation with this comprehensive ongoing and long-term best-practice decision. Long-term exclusive brand strategy. Generally focused on how and why, it provides specific strategic guidance for planning, building, measuring, and managing brand equity.

Solution Manual for Principles of Supply Chain Management 5th Edition by Wisner

PRINCIPLES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: A BALANCED APPROACH, 5thEd. Answers to Questions/Problems Chapter One

Discussion Questions

  1. Define the term supply chain management in your own words, and list its most important activities.
Ans.: The Supply-Chain Council’s definition of supply chain management is“[m]anaging supply and demand, sourcing raw materials and parts, manufacturing and assembly, warehousing and inventory tracking, order entry and order management, distribution across all channels, and delivery to the customer. These are also the most important activities, however integration of key supply chain processes might also be included in there.
  1. Can a small business like a local sandwich or bicycle shop benefit from practicing supply chain management?What would they most likely concentrate on?
Ans.: Yes, any organization can implement at least some of the important concepts. A good place to start is the rationalization or reduction of the supply base. Small businesses might also want to concentrate on customers as a starting point.
  1. Describe and draw a supply chain for a bicycle repair shop and list the important supply chain members.
Ans.: This will vary from student to student, but should include for instance parts suppliers, bicycle suppliers and other suppliers (ie, helmet suppliers) and services (ie, repair services) as 1st-tier suppliers and bicycle owners as 1st-tier customers.
  1. Can a bicycle repair shop have more than one supply chain? Explain.
Ans.: Yes. Every repair item the firm stocks has potentially a different supply chain associated with it.
  1. What roles do “collaboration” and “trust” play in the practice of supply chain management?
Ans.: This is essential for process integration. Sharing information and determining joint strategies is part of the integration/collaboration process, and to do this, trust must be present between the customer/focal firm/supplier.
  1. Why don’t firms just become more vertically integrated (eg. buy out suppliers and customers), instead of trying to manage their supply chains?
Ans.: This could cause a loss of focus and keep managers/employees from doing their core competencies, resulting in loss of performance.
  1. What types of organizations would benefit the most from practicing supply chain management? What sorts of improvements could be expected?
 Ans.: Firms with many suppliers, many complex products, large inventories and many customers (in other words, firms with many supply chains). Gains would be lower purchasing costs, lower carrying costs, better product quality, and better customer service.
  1. What are the benefits of supply chain management?
Ans.: Reduction of the bullwhip effect, better buyer/supplier relationships, better quality, lower costs, better customer service, higher demand, more profits.
  1. Can nonprofit, educational, or government organizations benefit from supply chain management? How?
Ans.: Yes. All services and organizations can benefit in terms of at least better customer service, better inventory management, and cheaper purchase prices.

Solution Manual for Operations Management 6th CANADIAN Edition by Stevenson

Chapter No 1 INTRODUCTION TO Operations Management Teaching Notes The initial meeting with the class (the first chapter) is primarily to overview the course (and textbook), and to introduce the instructor and his/her interest in Operations Management (OM). The course outline (syllabus), the objectives of the course and topics, chapters, and pages of text covered in the course, as well as problems/mini-cases, to be done in class, videos to watch, Excel worksheets to use, etc. are announced to the class. Many students may know little about OM and the types of jobs available. This point can be addressed in order to generate enthusiasm for the course. The Learning Objectives at the beginning of the chapter indicate the highlights of the chapter. Answers to Discussion and Review Questions
  1. Operations management is the management of processes (i.e., the sequence of activities and resources)that create goods and/or provide services.
 
  1. Production/operations planner/scheduler/controller, demand planner (forecaster), quality specialist, logistics coordinator, purchasing agent/buyer, supply chain manager, materials planner, inventory clerk/manager, production/operations manager.
 
  1. a.       Because a large % of a company’s expenses occur in the operations, e.g., purchasing materials and workforce salaries, more efficient operations can result in large increases in profits.
  2. A number of management jobs are in OM.
  3. Activities in all other areas of any organization are all interrelated with OM.
  4. Operations innovations lead to the marketplace and strategic benefits.
  5. The three major functions of organizations are operations, finance, and marketing. Operations is concerned with the creation of goods and services identified by marketing, finance is concerned with the provision of funds necessary for operations and investment of extra funds, and marketing is concerned with promoting and/or selling goods or services.
  6. The operations function consists of all activities that are directly related to producing goods or providing services. It adds value during the transformation process (the difference between the cost of inputs and the price of outputs). An operations manager manages the transformation function.                                                             He/she is responsible for planning and using the resources (labor, machines, and materials). The kind of work that operations managers do varies from organization to organization (largely because of the different goods or services involved). For example, a store/restaurant manager is in effect an operations manager. See Figure 1-6 for examples of typical activities performed by operations managers.
  7. Design decisions are usually strategic and long term (1–5 years or so ahead), whereas planning and control decisions are shorter term. In particular, planning decisions are tactical and medium-term (1–12 months or so ahead), and control decisions (including scheduling and execution) are short term (1–12 weeks or so ahead). Design involves decisions that relate to goods and service design, capacity, acquisition of equipment, the arrangement of departments, and location of facilities.Planning/control activities involve management of personnel, quality control/assurance, inventory planning and control, production planning, and scheduling.
 
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