# Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis 8th Edition by Ragsdale

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Edition: 8th Edition

Resource Type: Solution manual

## Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis 8th Edition by Ragsdale

Chapter 1

Introduction to Modeling & Problem Solving

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Decision Analysis – Identifying and evaluating the different possible courses of action that might be chosen to address a decision problem.

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Computer Model – A set of mathematical relationships and logical assumptions implemented in a computer as a representation of some real-world object or phenomenon.

1. A spreadsheet model is a type (or special case) of a computer model where a spreadsheet is used to implement the model.

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Business Analytics – A field of study that uses computers, statistics and mathematics to solve business problems.

1. Many of the tools and techniques from the field of business analytics can be implemented and used in spreadsheets.

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Spreadsheets are sometimes used to store lists of data; such as the grades of students in a class, or names addresses and phone numbers of friends and family. These types of “data base” applications of spreadsheets do not fall into the area of business analytics unless they data is being “mined” with a specific objective in mind.

1. Spreadsheets facilitate the decision-making process by making it easier to play out various what-if scenarios.

1. A modeling approach to decision making is beneficial in that the decision maker can analyze the probable impact of numerous alternative before selecting an alternative for implementation.

1. Dependent Variable – A bottom-line performance measure of interest to the decision maker that is influenced by other variables in the model; denoted by the symbol Y in the expression Y=(X1, X2, … X3).

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Independent Variable – A variable that influences (or plays a role in determining) the value of some bottom-line performance measure (dependent variable); denoted by the symbols Xiin the expression Y=(X1, X2, … X3).

1. Yes, a model can have more than one dependent variable. In some decision problems a manager might be interested in evaluating various alternatives on the basis of profit, probable number of injuries, resulting amount of toxic waste produced, etc.  Each of the variables represents a bottom-line performance measure that the manager might be interested in that should be included in the model.

1. Yes. See the answer to the previous question.

1. The solution to prescriptive models tell managers what actions to take while descriptive models simply describe the operation of a system. In descriptive models, the values to be assumed by one or more independent variables are uncertain and not under the decision maker’s control.

1. The solution to prescriptive models tell managers what actions to take while predictive models provide forecasts of what will happen in the future. In predictive models, the functional form () describing the nature of the relationship between the dependent and independent variable is ill-defined or not precisely known.

1. Descriptive models have a well-defined functional form, but the values of one or more of the independent variables are unknown or uncertain. In predictive models, the values of the independent variables are known or under the decision maker’s control, but the functional form () describing the nature of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables is ill-defined or not precisely known.

1. Description – To report on or summarize the features, characteristics or behavior of some object or phenomenon.

Prediction – An estimate or forecast of what will occur in the future.

Prescription – Directions, orders, or advise on how to solve a problem.

1. Consider the problem of determining how to travel from your home to school or work. There are probably many different routes that could be taken that might influence the total distance (or total length of time) required for the trip.  Most people would be interested in determining the route that requires the least distance (or least amount of time).  In this sort of problem (also known as a shortest path problem) the different routes that can be chosen represent independent variables and the dependent variable would be the total distance (or total travel time).

1. The spreadsheet in Figure 1.2 most closely resembles a prescriptive model because the function form () relating the dependent and independent variables is well-defined and the values of the independent variables are known, or are under the decision maker’s control.

1. “Probortunity” is the combination of the words problem and opportunity and denotes the fact that every problem can also be viewed as an opportunity.

1. The steps in the problem solving process are:

1) Identify the problem

2) Formulate and implement a model

3) Analyze the model

4) Test the result of the model

5) Implement the solution

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## Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis 8th Edition by Ragsdale

Chapter 1 Introduction to Modeling & Problem Solving
1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Decision Analysis - Identifying and evaluating the different possible courses of action that might be chosen to address a decision problem.

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Computer Model - A set of mathematical relationships and logical assumptions implemented in a computer as a representation of some real-world object or phenomenon.

1. A spreadsheet model is a type (or special case) of a computer model where a spreadsheet is used to implement the model.

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Business Analytics - A field of study that uses computers, statistics and mathematics to solve business problems.

1. Many of the tools and techniques from the field of business analytics can be implemented and used in spreadsheets.

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Spreadsheets are sometimes used to store lists of data; such as the grades of students in a class, or names addresses and phone numbers of friends and family. These types of "data base" applications of spreadsheets do not fall into the area of business analytics unless they data is being “mined” with a specific objective in mind.

1. Spreadsheets facilitate the decision-making process by making it easier to play out various what-if scenarios.

1. A modeling approach to decision making is beneficial in that the decision maker can analyze the probable impact of numerous alternative before selecting an alternative for implementation.

1. Dependent Variable - A bottom-line performance measure of interest to the decision maker that is influenced by other variables in the model; denoted by the symbol Y in the expression Y=(X1, X2, ... X3).

1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Independent Variable - A variable that influences (or plays a role in determining) the value of some bottom-line performance measure (dependent variable); denoted by the symbols Xiin the expression Y=(X1, X2, ... X3).

1. Yes, a model can have more than one dependent variable. In some decision problems a manager might be interested in evaluating various alternatives on the basis of profit, probable number of injuries, resulting amount of toxic waste produced, etc.  Each of the variables represents a bottom-line performance measure that the manager might be interested in that should be included in the model.

1. Yes. See the answer to the previous question.

1. The solution to prescriptive models tell managers what actions to take while descriptive models simply describe the operation of a system. In descriptive models, the values to be assumed by one or more independent variables are uncertain and not under the decision maker's control.

1. The solution to prescriptive models tell managers what actions to take while predictive models provide forecasts of what will happen in the future. In predictive models, the functional form () describing the nature of the relationship between the dependent and independent variable is ill-defined or not precisely known.

1. Descriptive models have a well-defined functional form, but the values of one or more of the independent variables are unknown or uncertain. In predictive models, the values of the independent variables are known or under the decision maker's control, but the functional form () describing the nature of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables is ill-defined or not precisely known.

1. Description - To report on or summarize the features, characteristics or behavior of some object or phenomenon.
Prediction - An estimate or forecast of what will occur in the future. Prescription - Directions, orders, or advise on how to solve a problem.
1. Consider the problem of determining how to travel from your home to school or work. There are probably many different routes that could be taken that might influence the total distance (or total length of time) required for the trip.  Most people would be interested in determining the route that requires the least distance (or least amount of time).  In this sort of problem (also known as a shortest path problem) the different routes that can be chosen represent independent variables and the dependent variable would be the total distance (or total travel time).

1. The spreadsheet in Figure 1.2 most closely resembles a prescriptive model because the function form () relating the dependent and independent variables is well-defined and the values of the independent variables are known, or are under the decision maker's control.

1. “Probortunity” is the combination of the words problem and opportunity and denotes the fact that every problem can also be viewed as an opportunity.

1. The steps in the problem solving process are:
1) Identify the problem 2) Formulate and implement a model 3) Analyze the model 4) Test the result of the model 5) Implement the solution

## Test Bank for Shortell and Kaluznys Healthcare Management 7th Edition by Burns

CHAPTER 1: Delivering Value: The Global Challenge in Health Care Management   MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. What is one issue that health care organizations must address in order to create and deliver value?
 a. To create appropriate barriers to health care for equity b. To improve access to health care c. To increase cost acceleration d. To decrease the overall quality of care
ANS:  B
PTS:   1
1. Health care concerns shared by the United States, China, and India include concerns over ____.
 a. the consolidated financial mechanism b. lack of spending at the local level c. the low number of specialists d. lifestyle issues and behaviors
ANS:  D
 Feedback A Incorrect: Health care concerns shared by the United States, China, and India include concerns over lifestyle issues and behaviors. B Incorrect: Health care concerns shared by the United States, China, and India include concerns over lifestyle issues and behaviors. C Incorrect: Health care concerns shared by the United States, China, and India include concerns over lifestyle issues and behaviors. D Correct: Health care concerns shared by the United States, China, and India include concerns over lifestyle issues and behaviors.
PTS:   1
1. The Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (PHQID) was launched to determine if economic incentives are effective at improving ____.
 a. the cost of inpatient care c. the cost of outpatient care b. the quality of inpatient care d. the quality of outpatient care
ANS:  B
 Feedback A Incorrect: The Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (PHQID) was launched to determine if economic incentives are effective at improving the quality of inpatient care. B Correct: The Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (PHQID) was launched to determine if economic incentives are effective at improving the quality of inpatient care. C Incorrect: The Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (PHQID) was launched to determine if economic incentives are effective at improving the quality of inpatient care. D Incorrect: The Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (PHQID) was launched to determine if economic incentives are effective at improving the quality of inpatient care.
PTS:   1
1. Investor-owned facilities comprise about ____ percent of the hospital sector.
 a. 15–20 c. 55–60 b. 30–35 d. 75–80
ANS:  A
 Feedback A Correct: Investor-owned facilities comprise about 15–20 percent of the hospital sector. B Incorrect: Investor-owned facilities comprise about 15–20 percent of the hospital sector. C Incorrect: Investor-owned facilities comprise about 15–20 percent of the hospital sector. D Incorrect: Investor-owned facilities comprise about 15–20 percent of the hospital sector.
PTS:   1
1. Organizations within the health care industry have increasingly consolidated into ____ over the past two decades with the stated objective of being more efficient, but may not operate as such.
 a. community care centers c. systems b. corporations d. foundations
ANS:  C
 Feedback A Incorrect: Organizations within the health care industry have increasingly consolidated into systems over the past two decades with the stated objective of being more efficient, but may not operate as such. B Incorrect: Organizations within the health care industry have increasingly consolidated into systems over the past two decades with the stated objective of being more efficient, but may not operate as such. C Correct: Organizations within the health care industry have increasingly consolidated into systems over the past two decades with the stated objective of being more efficient, but may not operate as such. D Incorrect: Organizations within the health care industry have increasingly consolidated into systems over the past two decades with the stated objective of being more efficient, but may not operate as such.
PTS:   1
1. The Human Relations School ascertains that in order to improve productivity, management must ____.
 a. implement the top-down control of work b. minimize the input of workers c. offer monetary incentives d. understand the informal organization of workers
ANS:  D

## Test Bank for Dental Public Health and Research 4th Edition by Nathe

Dental Public Health and Research, 4e (Nathe) Chapter 1   Dental Public Health: An Overview 1) When fulfilling the administrator role, a dental public health hygienist ________.
1. A) Lobbies to change laws
2. B) Conducts research
3. C) Provides clinical care
4. D) Educates and promotes dental health
5. E) Develops and coordinates public health programs
Answer:  E 2) Dental public health is the science of providing oral health care and education to the public and emphasizes the science of ________.
1. A) Dentistry
2. B) Urgent health care
3. C) Prosthodontics
4. D) Dental hygiene
5. E) None of the above
Answer:  D 3) Factors affecting dental care delivery include which of the following?
1. A) The development of the dental hygiene profession
2. B) Access issues
3. C) The decrease in periodontal diseases
4. D) Both A and B
5. E) None of the above
Answer:  D 4) The patient's ability to sue a dental provider, if that provider fails to diagnose and treat periodontal disease, is defined as ________.
1. A) Access issues
3. C) Socioeconomic status
4. D) Copayment issues
5. E) Malpractice
Answer:  E 5) Dental public health is a component of ________.
1. A) Public Affairs
2. B) Public Relations
3. C) Public Health
4. D) Community Affairs
5. E) Both A and D
Answer:  C 6) Which of the following involves the monitoring of the health of communities?
1. A) Assessment
2. B) Policy Development
3. C) Assurance
4. D) Serving All Functions
5. E) None of the above
Answer:  A 7) Which of the following is the process by which society makes decisions about problems?
1. A) Assessment
2. B) Policy Development
3. C) Assurance
4. D) Serving All Functions
5. E) None of the above
Answer:  B 8) Which of the following involves making certain that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective services to read agreed-upon public health goals?
1. A) Assessment
2. B) Policy Development
3. C) Assurance
4. D) Serving All Functions
5. E) None of the above
Answer:  C 9) Which of the following includes the research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems?
1. A) Assessment
2. B) Policy Development
3. C) Assurance
4. D) Serving All Functions
5. E) None of the above
Answer:  D 10) Which of the following dictates services to ensure the promotion of health and prevention of disease and injury?
1. A) Needs Assessment
2. B) Public Health Goals
3. C) Health Care Reform
4. D) Public Health Demands
5. E) Human Services Planning

## Test Bank for Public Health Science and Nursing Practice Caring For Populations by Savage

Chapter 10: Mental Health MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1.According to Healthy People 2020, which of the following are characteristics of mental health? Select all that apply.
 A. Engaging in productive activities B. Having fulfilling relationships C. Experiencing alterations in thinking D. Adapting to change E. Coping with challenges
ANS: A, B, D, E Objective: 3. Define the difference between behavioral, biological, environmental, and socioeconomic risk factors related to mental health disorders. pp. 225-226 Heading: Introduction Integrated Processes: N/A Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Knowledge [Remembering] Concept: Promoting Health Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback 1. Mental health is a state of successful performance of mental function, including engagement in productive activities. 2. Mental health is a state of successful performance of mental function, including being able to form fulfilling relationships with other people. 3. This is incorrect; it is an example of a mental disorder. Mental disorders are health conditions that are characterized by alterations in thinking, mood, or behavior that are associated with distress or impaired functioning. 4. Mental health is a state of successful performance of mental function, including the ability to adapt to change. 5. Mental health is a state of successful performance of mental function, including the ability to cope with challenges.
PTS:1CON:Promoting Health MULTIPLE CHOICE 2.In 2010, approximately how many people in the United States reported experiencing mental disorders in the previous year?
 A. 15% B. 50% C. 30% D. 25%
ANS: D Objective: 1. Define the burden of disease related to mental disorders using current epidemiological frameworks. pp. 226-227 Heading: Epidemiology of Mental Disorders Integrated Processes: N/A Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding] Concept: Promoting Health Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. In the United States in 2010 an estimated 25% of adults reported having mental disorders in the previous year. B This is incorrect. In the United States in 2010 an estimated 25% of adults reported having mental disorders in the previous year. C This is incorrect. In the United States in 2010 an estimated 25% of adults reported having mental disorders in the previous year. D In the United States in 2010 an estimated 25% of adults reported having mental disorders in the previous year.
PTS:1CON:Promoting Health 3.A student nurse is studying stress and mental health. The student nurse learns that ____ is based on an individual’s ability to access protective factors that exist at different levels in order to withstand chronic stress or recover from traumatic life events.
 A. Intervention B. Support C. Resilience D. Therapy
ANS: C Objective: 3. Define the difference between behavioral, biological, environmental, and socioeconomic risk factors related to mental health disorders. pp. 229-231 Heading: Protective Factors: Building Resilience Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Applying] Concept: Trauma; Stress; Promoting Health; Nursing Roles Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. Resilience is based on an individual’s ability to access protective factors that exist at different levels in order to withstand chronic stress or recover from traumatic life events. Preventive and treatment interventions are useful tools to build on an individual’s natural resilience to promote positive outcomes. B This is incorrect. Resilience is based on an individual’s ability to access protective factors that exist at different levels in order to withstand chronic stress or recover from traumatic life events. Support from family, friends, and community is an important part of strengthening an individual’s resilience. C Resilience is based on an individual’s ability to access protective factors that exist at different levels in order to withstand chronic stress or recover from traumatic life events. D This is incorrect. Resilience is based on an individual’s ability to access protective factors that exist at different levels in order to withstand chronic stress or recover from traumatic life events. Therapy is an important part of an overall treatment plan, in conjunction with intervention, support, and an individual’s capacity for resilience.
PTS: 1 CON: Trauma | Stress | Promoting Health | Nursing Roles 4.____ addresses specific subgroups at highest risk for development of a mental disorder or those that are showing early signs of a mental disorder.
 A. Indicated prevention B. Selective prevention C. Universal prevention D. Both 1 and 2
ANS: A Objective: 4. Apply current evidence-based population level interventions to the prevention of mental disorders and the promotion of optimal mental health for communities and populations. pp. 232-233 Heading: Prevention of Mental Disorders and Promotion of Mental Health > Institute of Medicine Model of Prevention Integrated Processes: Nursing Process Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding] Concept: Promoting Health Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A Indicated prevention addresses specific subgroups at highest risk for development of a mental disorder or those that are showing early signs of a mental disorder. The purpose of indicated techniques is to delay or reduce the severity of a mental disorder. B Selective prevention includes interventions provided to specific subgroups that are known to be at high risk for mental disorders owing to biological, psychological, social, or environmental factors but that have not yet been diagnosed with mental disorders. High-risk subgroups include but are not limited to those with a family history of mental disorders, history of adverse childhood events, or victims of violence. C Universal prevention refers to prevention interventions provided to the entire population, not just those who may be at risk. The interventions include but are not limited to public service announcements provided to the public at large through billboards, media messages (print and electronic), or general health education programs. D Indicated prevention addresses specific subgroups at highest risk for development of a mental disorder or those that are showing early signs of a mental disorder. The purpose of indicated techniques is to delay or reduce the severity of a mental disorder. Selective prevention includes interventions provided to specific subgroups that are known to be at high risk for mental disorders owing to biological, psychological, social, or environmental factors but that have not yet been diagnosed with mental disorders. High-risk subgroups include but are not limited to those with a family history of mental disorders, history of adverse childhood events, or victims of violence.
PTS:1CON:Promoting Health 5.The public health nurse (PHN) recognizes that which of the following are used as screening tools for depression?
 A. Patient Health Questionnaire 2 B. Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) C. Brief Symptom Checklist-18 of the My Mood Monitor (M-3) D. Both 1 and 2
ANS: D Objective: 5. Describe systems approaches to the promotion of mental health and the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders. p. 232 Heading: Prevention of Mental Disorders and Promotion of Mental Health > Measure of Mental Health: Health-Related Quality of Life Integrated Processes: Nursing Process Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Applying] Concept: Promoting Health; Mood; Assessment Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A Tools to screen for depression include the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 and the CESD-10. B Tools to screen for depression include the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 and the CESD-10. C This is incorrect. Tools to screen for depression include the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 and the CESD-10. Screening tools for anxiety disorders include the Brief Symptom Checklist-18 of the My Mood Monitor (M-3). D Tools to screen for depression include the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 and the CESD-10.
PTS:1CON:Promoting Health | Mood | Assessment 6.During a course on mental disorders, a PHN learns that the term serious mental illness (SMI) refers to diagnosable mental disorders that may disrupt a person’s ability to function and may qualify that person for support services. The PHN also notes that the mental disorders that can lead to SMI include:
 A. Mild depression B. Panic disorder C. Schizophrenia D. Both 2 and 3
ANS: D Objective: 1. Define the burden of disease related to mental disorders using current epidemiological frameworks. pp. 225-226 Heading: Introduction Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Applying] Concept: Cognition; Mood; Stress; Promoting Health; Nursing Roles Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. Major depression, however, is one of the mental disorders that can lead to SMI. B Both panic disorder and schizophrenia, among other mental disorders, can lead to SMI. C Both schizophrenia and panic disorder, among other mental disorders, can lead to SMI. D The mental disorders that can lead to SMI include major depression, panic disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and borderline personality disorder.
PTS: 1 CON: Cognition | Mood | Stress | Promoting Health | Nursing Roles 7.While studying the prevalence of mental health disorders worldwide, a PHN learns about the World Mental Health Survey, which is used to determine estimates of human capital costs and prevalence of mental disorders in a wide range of countries. The survey was developed by
 A. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) B. The World Health Organization (WHO) C. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) D. The World Health Assembly
ANS: B Objective: 1. Define the burden of disease related to mental disorders using current epidemiological frameworks. p. 227 Heading: Epidemiology of Mental Disorders > Surveillance of Mental Health Disorders Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Applying] Concept: Promoting Health; Nursing Roles Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. WHO developed the World Mental Health Survey to estimate human capital costs and mental disorders prevalence on a global scale. The CDC conducts many types of surveys on the prevalence of mental disorders but the organization did not develop the World Mental Health Survey. B The WHO developed the World Mental Health Survey to estimate human capital costs and mental disorders prevalence on a global scale. C This is incorrect. WHO developed the World Mental Health Survey to estimate human capital costs and mental disorders prevalence on a global scale. The IOM is involved in screening for mental health disorders and addresses the need for appropriate behavioral health treatment in its report, Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions: Quality Chasm Series. D This is incorrect. WHO developed the World Mental Health Survey to estimate human capital costs and mental disorders prevalence on a global scale. The World Health Assembly issued a resolution on mental health that aims to reduce the global burden of mental disorders and improve overall mental health worldwide.
PTS: 1 CON: Promoting Health | Nursing Roles 8.Which ethnic group has the highest 12-month prevalence of a mental disorder?
 A. Hispanics B. African Americans C. Asian Americans D. Non-Hispanic whites
ANS: D Objective: 1. Define the burden of disease related to mental disorders using current epidemiological frameworks. pp. 227-228 Heading: Epidemiology of Mental Disorders > Prevalence of Mental Health Disorders Integrated Processes: N/A Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Knowledge [Remembering] Concept: Promoting Health Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. Non-Hispanic whites have the highest 12-month prevalence rate for mental disorders at 21% compared with 16% for Hispanics. B This is incorrect. Non-Hispanic whites have the highest 12-month prevalence rate for mental disorders at 21% compared with 15% for African Americans. C This is incorrect. Non-Hispanic whites have the highest 12-month prevalence rate for mental disorders at 21% compared with 9% for Asian Americans. D Non-Hispanic whites have the highest 12-month prevalence rate for mental disorders at 21%.
PTS:1CON:Promoting Health 9.A PHN learns in a behavioral health class that the relationship between physiology and mental health plays an important role in mental disorders. Which of the following physiological factors may contribute to the development of mental disorders?
 A. Conditions that affect brain chemistry, such as medication side effects or toxins B. Physical trauma C. 1 and 2 D. Unstable family life
ANS: C Objective: 3. Define the difference between behavioral, biological, environmental, and socioeconomic risk factors related to mental health disorders. pp. 228-229 Heading: Behavioral, Biological, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Risk Factors > Individual Level Risk Factors for Mental Disorders Integrated Processes: Teaching/Learning Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Application] Concept: Cognition; Trauma; Promoting Health Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A Both conditions that affect brain chemistry and physical trauma are the physiological factors that may contribute to the development of mental disorders. B Both physical trauma and conditions that affect brain chemistry are physiological factors that may contribute to the development of mental disorders. C Conditions that affect brain chemistry and physical trauma are two of the physiological factors that may contribute to the development of mental disorders. D This is incorrect. Conditions that affect brain chemistry and physical trauma are two of the physiological factors that may contribute to the development of mental disorders. An unstable family life is not a physiological factor, although it may also contribute to the development of mental disorders.
PTS:1CON:Cognition | Trauma | Promoting Health 10.Which of the following community environment factors play a role in the development of mental disorders?
 A. Living in high crime areas B. Poverty C. Both 1 and 2 D. Family instability
ANS: C Objective: 3. Define the difference between behavioral, biological, environmental, and socioeconomic risk factors related to mental health disorders. p. 229 Heading: Behavioral, Biological, Environmental, and Socioeconomic Risk Factors > Community-Level Risk Factors for Mental Disorders Integrated Processes: N/A Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding] Concept: Promoting Health Difficulty: Easy
 Feedback A Living in high crime areas is a factor, along with poverty. B Both poverty and living in high crime areas play a role in the development of mental disorders. C Both poverty and living in high crime areas play a role in the development of mental disorders. D This is incorrect. Although family instability often contributes to the development of mental disorders, it is not considered a community environment factor.
PTS:1CON:Promoting Health 11.____ is a combination of personal attributes and societal stereotypes related to human characteristics viewed as unacceptable.
 A. Indicated prevention B. Stigma C. Risk factors D. Transinstitutionalization
ANS: B Objective: 3. Define the difference between behavioral, biological, environmental, and socioeconomic risk factors related to mental health disorders. pp. 231-232 Heading: Culture, Stigma, and Mental Health Disorders Integrated Processes: N/A Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Comprehension [Understanding] Concept: Promoting Health Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. Stigma is a combination of personal attributes and societal stereotypes related to human characteristics viewed as unacceptable. Indicated prevention addresses specific subgroups at highest risk for development of a mental disorder or those that are showing early signs of a mental disorder. B Stigma is a combination of personal attributes and societal stereotypes related to human characteristics viewed as unacceptable. C This is incorrect. Stigma is a combination of personal attributes and societal stereotypes related to human characteristics viewed as unacceptable. Risk factors increase an individual’s chance of developing a mental disorder. D This is incorrect. Stigma is a combination of personal attributes and societal stereotypes related to human characteristics viewed as unacceptable. Transinstitutionalization refers to the growing number of mentally ill persons who are homeless, in jail, in shelters, or in other facilities instead of being home or in a hospital.
PTS:1CON:Promoting Health 12.A nurse interested in working with persons with mental disorders who live in poverty understands that the most effective treatment involves multiple sectors of society, such as government agencies, grass roots groups, nonprofits, and businesses, working in tandem. This interrelationship is called:
 A. Indicated prevention B. Intersectoral strategies C. Health-Related Quality of Life D. Institute of Medicine Model of Prevention
ANS: B Objective: 4. Apply current evidence-based population level interventions to the prevention of mental disorders and the promotion of optimal mental health for communities and populations. p. 233 Heading: Prevention of Mental Disorders and Promotion of Mental Health > Promotion of Mental Health and Policy Integrated Processes: Nursing Process Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Applying] Concept: Promoting Health; Collaboration Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. Intersectoral strategies engage more than one sector of society with a shared interest such as government agencies, grass roots citizens groups, nonprofits, and businesses. Indicated prevention addresses specific subgroups at highest risk for development of a mental disorder or those that are showing early signs of a mental disorder. B Intersectoral strategies engage more than one sector of society with a shared interest such as government agencies, grass roots citizens groups, nonprofits, and businesses. C This is incorrect. Intersectoral strategies engage more than one sector of society with a shared interest such as government agencies, grass roots citizens groups, nonprofits, and businesses. Health-Related Quality of Life is the self-perceived impact of physical and emotional health on overall quality of life. D This is incorrect. Intersectoral strategies engage more than one sector of society with a shared interest such as government agencies, grass roots citizens groups, nonprofits, and businesses. The Institute of Medicine Model of Prevention is a framework for mental disorders that clearly separates prevention into three categories with specific interventions at each level.
PTS: 1 CON: Promoting Health | Collaboration 13.A recent graduate nurse working in an urban labor and delivery unit had a patient who experienced a difficult labor. The mother, suffering from postpartum depression (PPD), committed suicide a year after giving birth. Although the nurse knew the basics about PPD, the nurse immediately studied the condition in depth and learned that PPD:
 A. Can be triggered by a massive hormone drop following delivery B. Can intensify to cause delusions C. Occurs soon after delivery D. All of the above
ANS: D Objective: 4. Apply current evidence-based population level interventions to the prevention of mental disorders and the promotion of optimal mental health for communities and populations. pp. 233-235 Heading: Prevention of Mental Disorders and Promotion of Mental Health > Secondary Prevention: Screening for Mental Disorders Integrated Processes: Nursing Process Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Applying] Concept: Pregnancy; Mood; Violence; Promoting Health; Nursing Roles Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A PPD can be triggered by a massive post-delivery hormone drop, intensify enough to cause delusions, and occur soon after delivery. B PPD can be triggered by a massive post-delivery hormone drop, intensify enough to cause delusions, and occur soon after delivery. C PPD can be triggered by a massive post-delivery hormone drop, intensify enough to cause delusions, and occur soon after delivery. D PPD can be triggered by a massive post-delivery hormone drop, intensify enough to cause delusions, and occur soon after delivery.
PTS: 1 CON: Pregnancy | Mood | Violence | Promoting Health | Nursing Roles 14.A nurse working in labor and delivery requested permission from the nurse manager to conduct a quality improvement project to screen patients that might be susceptible to PPD. After completing the project, which of the following screening guidelines did the unit incorporate?
 A. All patients will be screened for PPD when they are admitted to the labor and delivery unit. B. Patients at high risk are referred to the attending obstetrician. C. Before being discharged, all new mothers will complete a questionnaire specific to PPD symptoms. D. All of the above
ANS: D Objective: Apply current evidence-based population level interventions to the prevention of mental disorders and the promotion of optimal mental health for communities and populations. pp. 233-235 Heading: Prevention of Mental Disorders and Promotion of Mental Health > Secondary Prevention: Screening for Mental Disorders Integrated Processes: Nursing Process Client Need: Psychosocial Integrity Cognitive Level: Application [Applying] Concept: Pregnancy; Mood; Promoting Health; Assessment; Quality Improvement Difficulty: Moderate
 Feedback A This is incorrect. Screening, high-risk referrals to the attending obstetrician and completion of a PPD symptom questionnaire were all incorporated. B This is incorrect. Screening, high-risk referrals to the attending obstetrician and completion of a PPD symptom questionnaire were all incorporated. C This is incorrect. Screening, high-risk referrals to the attending obstetrician and completion of a PPD symptom questionnaire were all incorporated. D Screening, high-risk referrals to the attending obstetrician and completion of a PPD symptom questionnaire were all incorporated.
PTS:1 CON: Pregnancy | Mood | Promoting Health | Assessment | Quality Improvement 15.A PHN treats a patient who may be depressed. To verify suspicions, the PHN checks ____, the definitive clinical guide for diagnosing mental disorders and providing consistency and accuracy in the screening for mental disorders.
 A. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) B. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) C. Patient Health Questionnaire 2 D. Brief System Checklist-18 of the My Mood Monitor
ANS: A

# MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.   Which of the following best describes community health nursing?
 a. Giving care with a focus on the aggregate’s needs b. Giving care with a focus on the group’s needs c. Focusing on the health care of individual clients in the community d. Working with an approach of unique client care
ANS:  C By definition, community health nursing is the health care of individual clients in the community. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remember                         REF:   p. 3 OBJ:   1.6 TOP:   Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment - Management of Care 2.   Which of the following best describes primary health care?
 a. A comprehensive way to address issues of social justice b. Giving the care to manage acute or chronic conditions c. Giving direct care to ill individuals within their family setting d. Having the goal of health promotion and disease prevention
ANS:  A By definition, primary health care is comprehensive and addresses issues of social justice and equity. Social justice in the context of health refers to ensuring fairness and equality in health services so that vulnerable individuals in society have easy access to health care. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remember                         REF:   p. 10 OBJ:   1.4                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 3.   The health of which of the following is the primary focus of public health nurses (PHNs)?
 a. Families b. Groups c. Individuals d. Populations
ANS:  D PHNs use knowledge of nursing, social sciences, and public health sciences for the promotion and protection of health and for the prevention of disease among populations. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remember                         REF:   p. 13, Table 1-4 | p. 20 OBJ:   1.5                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 4.   Which change is the primary explanation for life expectancy increasing so notably since the early 1900s?
 a. An increase in findings from medical laboratory research b. Incredible advances in surgical techniques and procedures c. Improved sanitation and other public health activities d. Increased use of antibiotics to fight infections
ANS:  C Improvement in control of infectious diseases through immunizations, sanitation, and other public health activities led to the increase in life expectancy since the early 1900s. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remember                         REF:   pp. 12-13 OBJ:   1.5                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 5.   Which community health nursing practice area receives funding from the private sector?
 a. Telenurses b. Corrections nurses c. Nurse entrepreneurs d. Street or outreach nurses
ANS:  C The nurse entrepreneur receives private funding, whereas all of the other community health nurse (CHN) roles are with provincially or federally funded positions. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remember                         REF:   p. 22, Table 1-4 Examples OBJ:   1.6 TOP:   Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment - Management of Care 6.   A PHN strives to prevent disease and disability, often in partnership with other community groups. Which statement is an appropriate summary of the PHN’s role?
 a. The PHN asks the political leaders what interventions should be chosen. b. The PHN assesses the community and decides on appropriate interventions. c. The PHN uses data from the main health care institutions in the community to determine needed health services. d. The PHN works with community members to carry out public health functions.
ANS:  D It is crucial that the PHN work with members of the community to carry out core public health functions. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application/Apply                                          REF:    p. 13, How To box OBJ:   1.5                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 7.   Which of the following is used as a measurement of population health?
 a. Health status indicators b. The levels of prevention c. The number of memberships at the local fitness centre d. Reported provincial alcohol and tobacco sales in any given month
ANS:  A Population health refers to the health outcomes of a population as measured by determinants of health and health outcomes. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remember                         REF:   p. 16 OBJ:   1.2                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 8.   A registered nurse (RN), has just been employed as a CHN. Which question would be most relevant to her practice as she begins her position?
 a. “Which community groups are at greatest risk for problems?” b. “Which patients should I see first as I begin my day?” c. “With which physicians will I be collaborating most closely?” d. “Who is the nursing assistant to whom I can refer patients?”
ANS:  A CHNs apply the nursing process to the entire community; asking which groups are at greatest risk reflects a community-oriented perspective. The other possible responses focus on particular individuals. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application/Apply                                          REF:    p. 15 OBJ:   1.6                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 9.   The CHN working with women at the senior citizens’ centre reminds them that the only way the centre will be able to afford a driver and a van service for those who cannot drive themselves is to continue to write letters to their local city council representatives, requesting funding for such a service. What is the CHN doing?
 a. Ensuring that the women do not expect the CHN herself to do anything about their problem b. Demonstrating that she understands the women’s concerns and needs c. Expressing empathy, support, and concern d. Helping the women engage in political action locally
ANS:  D CHNs have an imperative to work with the members of the community to carry out public health functions such as political action. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application/Apply                                          REF:    p. 13, How To box OBJ:   1.5 | 1.6 TOP:   Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment - Management of Care 10.   Which activity is an example of the “advocate” role of the CHN?
 a. Organizing home care support for a newly discharged older adult client b. Acting as a member of a community action group for provision of accessible transit choices c. Doing prenatal assessments d. Facilitating a self-help group for smoking cessation
ANS:  B An advocate provides a voice to client concerns when acting as a member of a community action group for provision of accessible transit choices. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application/Apply                                          REF:    p. 19, Table 1-3 OBJ:   1.6 TOP:   Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment - Management of Care 11.   In which scenario is the PHN most comprehensively fulfilling collaborative practice responsibilities?
 a. The PHN meets with several groups about community recreation issues. b. The PHN spends the day attending meetings at various health agencies. c. The PHN talks to several people about their particular health concerns. d. The PHN watches television, including a telecast of a city council meeting on the local cable station.
ANS:  B Any of these might represent a PHN communicating, cooperating, or collaborating with community residents or groups about health concerns. However, the PHN who spends the day attending meetings at various health agencies is most comprehensively fulfilling requirements effectively, since health is broader than recreation, individual concerns are not as important as aggregate priorities, and watching television is only one-way communication. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis/Synthesize                            REF:   pp. 15-16 OBJ:   1.5 TOP:   Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment - Management of Care 12.   A CHN often has to make resource allocation decisions. In such cases, which approach will most help the CHN to arrive at the decision?
 a. Choosing a moral or ethical principle b. Choosing the cheapest, most economical approach c. Choosing the most rational outcome d. Choosing the needs of the aggregate, rather than the needs of a few individuals
ANS:  D Although all of the answers represent components of the CHN’s decision-making process, the predominant needs of the population outweigh the expressed needs of one person or a few people. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application/Apply                                          REF:    pp. 7-8 OBJ:   1.3 TOP:   Client Need: Safe and Effective Care Environment - Management of Care 13.   Which situation most closely represents the focus of public health nursing?
 a. Assessing the services and effectiveness of the school health clinic b. Caring for patients after their outpatient surgeries c. Giving care to schoolchildren at the school clinic and to the children’s families d. Treating paediatric patients at an outpatient clinic
ANS:  A A public health or population-focused approach would consider the entire group of children receiving care, to see if services are effective in achieving the goal of improving the health of the school population. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application/Apply                                          REF:    p. 13, How To box OBJ:   1.5                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 14.   Which public health service best represents primary prevention?
 a. Developing a health education program about the dangers of smoking b. Providing a diabetes clinic for adults in low-income neighbourhoods c. Providing an influenza vaccination program in a community retirement village d. Teaching school-aged children about the positive effects of exercise
ANS:  C Although all the services listed are appropriate and valuable, providing influenza vaccines to healthy adults represents the primary level of health prevention. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application/Apply                                          REF:    p. 14 OBJ:   1.5                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance 15.   What term is used interchangeably with the term subpopulations?
 a. Groups b. Aggregates c. Clients d. Communities
ANS:  B Generally, subpopulations are referred to as aggregates within the larger community population. DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge/Remember                         REF:   p. 16 OBJ:   1.2                 TOP:   Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance

## Test Bank for Journey Across The Life Span Human Development And Health Promotion 5th Edition by Polan

Table of Content

Table of Contents Chapter 1. Healthy Lifestyles Chapter 2. Culture Chapter 3. The Family Chapter 4. Communication Chapter 5. Theories of Growth and Development Chapter 6. Prenatal Period to 1 Year Chapter 7. Toddlerhood Chapter 8. Preschool Chapter 9. School Age Chapter 10. Puberty and Adolescence Chapter 11. Early Adulthood Chapter 12. Middle Adulthood Chapter 13. Late Adulthood Chapter 14. Death and Dying
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