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Test bank Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition by Nies

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Test bank Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition by Nies

Chapter 01: Health: A Community View

Nies: Community/Public Health Nursing, 7th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which best describes the primary reason that Americans are concerned about health care?
a. Politicians are discussing how to improve health care.
b. The media has provided mixed messages about the health care system.
c. Our national health care costs keep increasing.
d. The new health care system offers free services to Americans.
ANS: C
The primary reason for the focus on health care is the constantly increasing costs, which
cannot be sustained. The costs of caring for the sick accounted for the majority of escalating
health care dollars, which increased from 5.7% of the gross domestic product in 1965 to
17.8% in 2015. Politicians and the media both influence Americans’ perceptions about health
care; however, they are not the primary reason why Americans are concerned. The new health
care system will change the health care access and availability, but will not necessarily be
offering any free services to Americans.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
2. A nurse has begun to lobby with politicians for changes to the health care system. Why is this
involvement important?
a. Nurses, as central characters in several popular TV series, are currently very
visible in American media.
b. Nurses are primarily responsible for managing the various units in our health care
system.
c. Nurses are the largest segment of health care providers.
d. Nurses are the only group that is employed both inside and outside of hospitals.
ANS: C
As the largest segment of health care providers, nurses are informed about the current health
care system and all the problems that result from people not seeking care until they are
desperately ill. Nurses, as the American Nurses Association (ANA) emphasize, usually
believe that health care is a right, not a privilege. Therefore, nurses, whose work is central to
our current health care delivery system, can also be instrumental in working politically to
create a health care delivery system that will meet health needs. While nurses are in several
current TV series and are employed both inside and outside of hospitals, physicians and other
health care providers are as well. Nurses are often managers, but managers often have other
backgrounds, such as business administration.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
3. What conclusion can be drawn from examining where nurses are employed?
a. There is a trend toward consolidation of health care into large central medical
centers.
b. There is an increased emphasis on community-based health care.
c. There is an obvious need to decrease health care costs by cutting positions.
d. Managed care organizations (MCOs) are employing nurses to improve customer
NURSINGTB.COM
Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU
RS
IN
GT
B.CO
M
relations.
ANS: B
MCOs are employing nurses in many capacities. Although hospitals are closing and acute care
is increasingly found in central medical centers, the same trend may be seen in an increase in neighborhood-based practice centers. While positions are cut in most industries, health care is recognized as an area where growth in employment is expected. However, nurses are increasingly employed in community settings as opposed to hospitals. This change reflects the
move toward community-based care rather than hospital-based tertiary care. To help decrease the continued rise in health care costs, the increased emphasis is on disease prevention rather than high-cost treatment.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
4. Which ethical belief would be most helpful in the current health care crisis?
a. Emphasis should be on individual and corporation freedom in the marketplace.
b. Emphasis should be on individual autonomy and freedom of choice.
c. Emphasis should be on social justice and collective responsibility.
d. Emphasis should be on the effectiveness of technology in resolving problems.
ANS: C
Public health recognizes the necessity of collective action in keeping the environment safe and
in egalitarian tradition and vision. An overinvestment in technology and seeking of cures
within the market justice system has stifled the evolution of a health system to protect and
preserve the health of the population. Although individual autonomy and freedom of choice
are important, so is the recognition of collective responsibility in ensuring social justice,
which entitles all people to basic necessities.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
5. What is the primary problem seen in Healthy People 2020’s emphasis on choosing healthy
lifestyle behaviors, such as daily exercise or healthy food choices?
a. Emphasis on other lifestyle choices, such as not smoking and minimal use of
alcohol or drugs, is also needed.
b. All of us must work together to make unhealthy behaviors socially unacceptable.
c. It costs more to make healthy choices, such as buying and eating fresh fruits and
vegetables as opposed to quick and cheap fast-food choices.
d. Public policy emphasizes personal responsibility but ignores social and
environmental changes needed for well-being.
ANS: D
Although all responses are accurate, the primary problem is the emphasis on personal choices
in the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Emphasis on personal choices ignores the need for
community responsibility and action that addresses environmental or cultural restraints to
health.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
6. What responsibility does the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics require of
the nurse beyond giving excellent care to patients?
a. Accept longer work schedules to ensure that professional care is always available
NURSINGTB.COM
Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU
RS
IN
GT
B.CO
M
to clients.
b. Recognize the need for experienced nurses to mentor new graduates to help
increase and expand the number of professionals available.
c. Support health legislation to improve accessibility and cost of health care.
d. Volunteer to work overtime as needed to ensure maximum quality of care.
ANS: C
The ANA Code of Ethics promotes social reform by focusing on health policy and legislation
to positively affect accessibility, quality, and cost of health care. The code does not directly
address workplace issues, such as work schedules or need for overtime.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis)
7. What is the community health nursing definition of health?
a. Health is a person’s goal-directed purposeful process toward well-being or
wholeness.
b. Health is an individual’s physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity.
c. Health is the mutual adaptation between a person and his or her environment in
meeting daily existence.
d. Health is families and aggregates choosing actions to ensure safety and well-being.
ANS: D
The text stresses that health is not just the result of an individual’s choices, but choices and
actions of individuals, families, groups, and communities that lead to better health.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
8. How does community health nursing define community?
a. A group of persons living within specific geographic boundaries
b. A group of persons who share a common identity and environment
c. A group of persons who work together to meet common goals
d. A group of persons who resolve a community concern
ANS: B
Community health nurses work with both geopolitical groups (within specific geographic
boundaries) and phenomenological groups (who have a common identity based on culture,
history, or goals). A particular phenomenological group may or may not have been a planned
group—that is, a group that came together to resolve a recognized common problem or to
meet a common goal. However, of all the choices, a group of persons who share a common
identity (phenomenological group) and environment (which implies a specific geographic
setting) is the broadest and most complete definition.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
9. Which variable has a major influence on a community’s health?
a. Behavior choices made by persons in the community
b. Number of health care providers and hospitals in the community
c. Quality of the public safety officers (police officers, firefighters, etc.)
d. The number and credentials of public health officials in the community
ANS: A
NURSINGTB.COM
Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU
RS
IN
GT
B.CO
M
Individual behavior choices are responsible for about 50% of health outcomes. Individual
choices are affected through interaction with other individuals, and their mutual social and
physical environments. The number of health care providers has not played a major role in the
health outcomes in the community in comparison to individual health behaviors. The quality
of public safety officers and number of public health officials have not been identified as
major contributors to the determinants of health.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
10. What change could most effectively lead to a longer life span in Americans?
a. Parenting and sexual behavior classes in all public school systems
b. Legislation restricting alcohol and drug use
c. Notably reducing speed limits on all state and federal highways, and changing the
age limit for driving to 21 years of age
d. The belief that smoking is shameful and disgusting, as well as expensive,
becoming the social norm
ANS: D
Smoking is responsible for almost 20% of all deaths in the United States. Although smoking
is an individual’s choice, all people are affected by social norms. Parenting and sexual
behavior classes and legislative changes may influence health, but may not necessarily lead to
a longer lifespan. Community health nurses should recognize that health is influenced by a
web of factors, some that can be changed and some that cannot. Influencing social norms may
better promote change among Americans.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
11. What is the health issue causing the most concern in the United States today?
a. Diabetes epidemic
b. Increase in cardiac disease
c. Increase in obesity
d. Rise in cancer rates
ANS: C
The widespread increase in incidence of overweight and obesity has led to calls for
population-based measures to address this issue. The overarching problem of obesity has led
to an increase in diabetes as well as cardiac disease. If this health issue was controlled, there
should be in a decrease in the other health issues.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
12. What factors are most responsible for the increasing length of life of Americans over the past
100 years?
a. Better nutrition and family planning options
b. Education concerning the need to reduce salt and fat in the diet
c. Improved medical care, including exciting new technologies
d. More efficient cancer screenings and early intervention
ANS: A
NURSINGTB.COM
Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU
RS
IN
GT
B.CO
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Average increased life span over the past 100 years can be largely attributed to higher
standards of living, better nutrition, a healthier environment, and having fewer children.
Public health efforts such as immunization and medical care have also contributed.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension)
13. Why would a public health nurse want to know about morbidity and mortality statistics on the
local, state, and national level?
a. To be able to share current trends in health problems with the community
b. To be able to observe the community’s statistics over time and compare the
community with other communities
c. To justify local budgets and the need for increased income from citizens
d. To publicize current health issues and suggest appropriate actions to citizens
ANS: B
Although being informed and being able to educate the public is always preferred and nurses
often do have to justify budgets, data are needed to compare the local community with itself
over time and with other communities so that problems may be recognized and action taken to
confront health issues. The first step is always to recognize problems as they develop.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
14. How do public health efforts differ from medical efforts in improving the health of our
citizens?
a. Medical care providers autonomously choose appropriate interventions, whereas
public health care providers must engage in whatever actions legislation requires.
b. Medical care providers are self-employed or agency employed, whereas public
health care providers are employed by and paid through the government.
c. Medical care providers focus only on individuals, whereas public health care
providers focus only on aggregates.
d. Medical care providers focus on disease diagnosis and management, whereas
public health care providers focus on health promotion and disease prevention.
ANS: D
Medical care providers are restricted by insurance and government regulations. Providers may
also be employed in government facilities, such as Veterans Administration facilities.
However, medical care providers primarily focus on diagnosis and treatment of disease,
whereas public health care providers try to promote health and prevent disease. Although
medical care providers primarily focus on individuals and public health care providers
primarily focus on aggregates, their practice is not limited to only individuals or only
aggregates.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)
15. Which primary prevention would the school nurse choose to address the school’s number of
unwed pregnancies?
a. Create a class on parenting for both the moms-to-be and the dads-to-be.
b. Convince the school board to allow sex education classes to include birth control
measures.
c. Employ the moms-to-be as 1-hour-a-day employees in the school daycare center
for children born to school students.
NURSINGTB.COM
Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU
RS
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GT
B.CO
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d. Establish a class where all the unwed moms-to-be can learn infant care.
ANS: B
Primary prevention relates to activities directed at preventing a problem before it occurs by
altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals. Primary prevention
consists of two elements: general health promotion and specific protection. Health promotion
efforts enhance resiliency and protective factors and target essentially well populations.
Specific protection efforts reduce or eliminate risk factors. Although all choices would be
appropriate actions in a school, only education regarding sexuality and birth control would
help prevent future pregnancies.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)

 

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DescriptionEdition: 7th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Urden Edition: 8th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadEdition: 7th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadEdition: 8th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Woo Edition: 4th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Perry Edition: 9th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant Download
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Test bank Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition by Nies

Chapter 01: Health: A Community View

Nies: Community/Public Health Nursing, 7th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which best describes the primary reason that Americans are concerned about health care? a. Politicians are discussing how to improve health care. b. The media has provided mixed messages about the health care system. c. Our national health care costs keep increasing. d. The new health care system offers free services to Americans. ANS: C The primary reason for the focus on health care is the constantly increasing costs, which cannot be sustained. The costs of caring for the sick accounted for the majority of escalating health care dollars, which increased from 5.7% of the gross domestic product in 1965 to 17.8% in 2015. Politicians and the media both influence Americans’ perceptions about health care; however, they are not the primary reason why Americans are concerned. The new health care system will change the health care access and availability, but will not necessarily be offering any free services to Americans. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 2. A nurse has begun to lobby with politicians for changes to the health care system. Why is this involvement important? a. Nurses, as central characters in several popular TV series, are currently very visible in American media. b. Nurses are primarily responsible for managing the various units in our health care system. c. Nurses are the largest segment of health care providers. d. Nurses are the only group that is employed both inside and outside of hospitals. ANS: C As the largest segment of health care providers, nurses are informed about the current health care system and all the problems that result from people not seeking care until they are desperately ill. Nurses, as the American Nurses Association (ANA) emphasize, usually believe that health care is a right, not a privilege. Therefore, nurses, whose work is central to our current health care delivery system, can also be instrumental in working politically to create a health care delivery system that will meet health needs. While nurses are in several current TV series and are employed both inside and outside of hospitals, physicians and other health care providers are as well. Nurses are often managers, but managers often have other backgrounds, such as business administration. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 3. What conclusion can be drawn from examining where nurses are employed? a. There is a trend toward consolidation of health care into large central medical centers. b. There is an increased emphasis on community-based health care. c. There is an obvious need to decrease health care costs by cutting positions. d. Managed care organizations (MCOs) are employing nurses to improve customer NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M relations. ANS: B MCOs are employing nurses in many capacities. Although hospitals are closing and acute care is increasingly found in central medical centers, the same trend may be seen in an increase in neighborhood-based practice centers. While positions are cut in most industries, health care is recognized as an area where growth in employment is expected. However, nurses are increasingly employed in community settings as opposed to hospitals. This change reflects the move toward community-based care rather than hospital-based tertiary care. To help decrease the continued rise in health care costs, the increased emphasis is on disease prevention rather than high-cost treatment. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 4. Which ethical belief would be most helpful in the current health care crisis? a. Emphasis should be on individual and corporation freedom in the marketplace. b. Emphasis should be on individual autonomy and freedom of choice. c. Emphasis should be on social justice and collective responsibility. d. Emphasis should be on the effectiveness of technology in resolving problems. ANS: C Public health recognizes the necessity of collective action in keeping the environment safe and in egalitarian tradition and vision. An overinvestment in technology and seeking of cures within the market justice system has stifled the evolution of a health system to protect and preserve the health of the population. Although individual autonomy and freedom of choice are important, so is the recognition of collective responsibility in ensuring social justice, which entitles all people to basic necessities. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 5. What is the primary problem seen in Healthy People 2020’s emphasis on choosing healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as daily exercise or healthy food choices? a. Emphasis on other lifestyle choices, such as not smoking and minimal use of alcohol or drugs, is also needed. b. All of us must work together to make unhealthy behaviors socially unacceptable. c. It costs more to make healthy choices, such as buying and eating fresh fruits and vegetables as opposed to quick and cheap fast-food choices. d. Public policy emphasizes personal responsibility but ignores social and environmental changes needed for well-being. ANS: D Although all responses are accurate, the primary problem is the emphasis on personal choices in the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Emphasis on personal choices ignores the need for community responsibility and action that addresses environmental or cultural restraints to health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 6. What responsibility does the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics require of the nurse beyond giving excellent care to patients? a. Accept longer work schedules to ensure that professional care is always available NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M to clients. b. Recognize the need for experienced nurses to mentor new graduates to help increase and expand the number of professionals available. c. Support health legislation to improve accessibility and cost of health care. d. Volunteer to work overtime as needed to ensure maximum quality of care. ANS: C The ANA Code of Ethics promotes social reform by focusing on health policy and legislation to positively affect accessibility, quality, and cost of health care. The code does not directly address workplace issues, such as work schedules or need for overtime. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) 7. What is the community health nursing definition of health? a. Health is a person’s goal-directed purposeful process toward well-being or wholeness. b. Health is an individual’s physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. c. Health is the mutual adaptation between a person and his or her environment in meeting daily existence. d. Health is families and aggregates choosing actions to ensure safety and well-being. ANS: D The text stresses that health is not just the result of an individual’s choices, but choices and actions of individuals, families, groups, and communities that lead to better health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 8. How does community health nursing define community? a. A group of persons living within specific geographic boundaries b. A group of persons who share a common identity and environment c. A group of persons who work together to meet common goals d. A group of persons who resolve a community concern ANS: B Community health nurses work with both geopolitical groups (within specific geographic boundaries) and phenomenological groups (who have a common identity based on culture, history, or goals). A particular phenomenological group may or may not have been a planned group—that is, a group that came together to resolve a recognized common problem or to meet a common goal. However, of all the choices, a group of persons who share a common identity (phenomenological group) and environment (which implies a specific geographic setting) is the broadest and most complete definition. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 9. Which variable has a major influence on a community’s health? a. Behavior choices made by persons in the community b. Number of health care providers and hospitals in the community c. Quality of the public safety officers (police officers, firefighters, etc.) d. The number and credentials of public health officials in the community ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M Individual behavior choices are responsible for about 50% of health outcomes. Individual choices are affected through interaction with other individuals, and their mutual social and physical environments. The number of health care providers has not played a major role in the health outcomes in the community in comparison to individual health behaviors. The quality of public safety officers and number of public health officials have not been identified as major contributors to the determinants of health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 10. What change could most effectively lead to a longer life span in Americans? a. Parenting and sexual behavior classes in all public school systems b. Legislation restricting alcohol and drug use c. Notably reducing speed limits on all state and federal highways, and changing the age limit for driving to 21 years of age d. The belief that smoking is shameful and disgusting, as well as expensive, becoming the social norm ANS: D Smoking is responsible for almost 20% of all deaths in the United States. Although smoking is an individual’s choice, all people are affected by social norms. Parenting and sexual behavior classes and legislative changes may influence health, but may not necessarily lead to a longer lifespan. Community health nurses should recognize that health is influenced by a web of factors, some that can be changed and some that cannot. Influencing social norms may better promote change among Americans. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 11. What is the health issue causing the most concern in the United States today? a. Diabetes epidemic b. Increase in cardiac disease c. Increase in obesity d. Rise in cancer rates ANS: C The widespread increase in incidence of overweight and obesity has led to calls for population-based measures to address this issue. The overarching problem of obesity has led to an increase in diabetes as well as cardiac disease. If this health issue was controlled, there should be in a decrease in the other health issues. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 12. What factors are most responsible for the increasing length of life of Americans over the past 100 years? a. Better nutrition and family planning options b. Education concerning the need to reduce salt and fat in the diet c. Improved medical care, including exciting new technologies d. More efficient cancer screenings and early intervention ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M Average increased life span over the past 100 years can be largely attributed to higher standards of living, better nutrition, a healthier environment, and having fewer children. Public health efforts such as immunization and medical care have also contributed. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 13. Why would a public health nurse want to know about morbidity and mortality statistics on the local, state, and national level? a. To be able to share current trends in health problems with the community b. To be able to observe the community’s statistics over time and compare the community with other communities c. To justify local budgets and the need for increased income from citizens d. To publicize current health issues and suggest appropriate actions to citizens ANS: B Although being informed and being able to educate the public is always preferred and nurses often do have to justify budgets, data are needed to compare the local community with itself over time and with other communities so that problems may be recognized and action taken to confront health issues. The first step is always to recognize problems as they develop. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 14. How do public health efforts differ from medical efforts in improving the health of our citizens? a. Medical care providers autonomously choose appropriate interventions, whereas public health care providers must engage in whatever actions legislation requires. b. Medical care providers are self-employed or agency employed, whereas public health care providers are employed by and paid through the government. c. Medical care providers focus only on individuals, whereas public health care providers focus only on aggregates. d. Medical care providers focus on disease diagnosis and management, whereas public health care providers focus on health promotion and disease prevention. ANS: D Medical care providers are restricted by insurance and government regulations. Providers may also be employed in government facilities, such as Veterans Administration facilities. However, medical care providers primarily focus on diagnosis and treatment of disease, whereas public health care providers try to promote health and prevent disease. Although medical care providers primarily focus on individuals and public health care providers primarily focus on aggregates, their practice is not limited to only individuals or only aggregates. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 15. Which primary prevention would the school nurse choose to address the school’s number of unwed pregnancies? a. Create a class on parenting for both the moms-to-be and the dads-to-be. b. Convince the school board to allow sex education classes to include birth control measures. c. Employ the moms-to-be as 1-hour-a-day employees in the school daycare center for children born to school students. NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M d. Establish a class where all the unwed moms-to-be can learn infant care. ANS: B Primary prevention relates to activities directed at preventing a problem before it occurs by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals. Primary prevention consists of two elements: general health promotion and specific protection. Health promotion efforts enhance resiliency and protective factors and target essentially well populations. Specific protection efforts reduce or eliminate risk factors. Although all choices would be appropriate actions in a school, only education regarding sexuality and birth control would help prevent future pregnancies. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)  

Test Bank For Critical Care Nursing 8th Edition By Urden

Sample Questions 

Chapter 04: Genetic Issues Urden: Critical Care Nursing, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE
  1. What is a genetic variant that exists in greater than 1% of the population termed?
a. Genetic mutation
b. Genetic polymorphism
c. Genetic deletion
d. Tandem repeat
ANS:  B When a genetic variant occurs frequently and is present in 1% or more of the population, it is described as a genetic polymorphism. The term genetic mutation refers to a change in the DNA genetic sequence that can be inherited that occurs in less than 1% of the population. Genetic material in the chromosome can also be deleted and new information from another chromosome can be inserted or can be a tandem repeat (multiple repeats of the same sequence). PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 43 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. Which type of genetic disorder occurs when there is an interaction between genetic and environmental factors such as that which occurs with type 2 diabetes?
a. Chromosome
b. Mitochondrial
c. Multifactorial disorders
d. Allele dysfunction
ANS:  C In multifactorial disorders there is an interaction between vulnerable genes and the environment. Cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and type 2 diabetes are examples of multifactorial disorders that result from an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Understanding     REF:   p. 46 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder in which genes on chromosome 15 (q11.2-13) are deleted. What type of disorder is PWS?
a. Chromosome disorder
b. Mitochondrial disorder
c. Complex gene disorder
d. Multifactorial disorder
ANS:  A Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a chromosome disorder as a result of several missing genes on chromosome 15. In chromosome disorders, the entire chromosome or very large segments of the chromosome are damaged, missing, duplicated, or otherwise altered. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Applying              REF:   p. 45 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. A family pedigree is used to determine whether a disease has a genetic component. What does a proband indicate in a family pedigree?
a. The disease being mother related or father related
b. The first person in the family who was diagnosed with the disorder
c. Who in the family is the xy band
d. The disease genotype including locus
ANS:  B For nurses, it is important to ask questions that elucidate which family members are affected versus those who are unaffected and then to identify the individuals who may carry the gene in question but who do not have symptoms (carriers). The proband is the name given to the first person diagnosed in the family pedigree. Homozygous versus heterozygous determines if the disorder is carried by a gene from one or both parents. The xy band determines if the disorder is carried through the sex genes. A disease locus is the genetic address of the disorder. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 46 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. Philadelphia translocation is a specific chromosomal abnormality that occurs from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, where parts of these two chromosomes switch places. This abnormality is associated with which disease?
a. Hemophilia A
b. Chronic myelogenous leukemia
c. Obesity
d. Marfan syndrome
ANS:  B Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation is a specific chromosomal abnormality associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia. It occurs from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, where parts of these two chromosomes switch places. Hemophilia A is a sex-linked inheritance. Obesity is being studied with the FTO gene on chromosome 16. Marfan syndrome is classified as a single-gene disorder. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 42 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. What was the goal of the Human Genome Project?
a. Identifying haplotype tags
b. Exposing untaggable SNPs and recombination hot spots
c. Producing a catalog of human genome variation
d. Mapping all the human genes
ANS:  D The Human Genome Project was a huge international collaborative project that began in 1990 with the goal of making a map of all the human genes (the genome). The final genome sequence was published in 2003. The HapMap project was to identify haplotype tags. The Genome-Wide Association Studies was used to expose untaggable SNPs and recombination hot spots. The 1000 Genomes project was used to map all the human genes. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 49 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. The patient is placed under general anesthesia for a carotid endarterectomy. During the surgery, the patient develops muscle contracture with skeletal muscle rigidity, acidosis, and elevated temperature. What is a possible cause for malignant hyperthermia?
a. Polymorphism in RYR1 at chromosome 19q13.1
b. Variant in the VKOR1 gene
c. Variant in the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 gene
d. Halothane overdose
ANS:  A Individuals with polymorphisms in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) at chromosome 19q13.1 are at risk of a rare pharmacogenetic condition known as malignant hyperthermia. In affected individuals, exposure to inhalation anesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants during general anesthesia induces life-threatening muscle contracture with skeletal muscle rigidity, acidosis, and elevated temperature. Warfarin is being researched as a variant in the VKOR1 gene and in the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2C9 gene. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluating            REF:   p. 53|Box 4-3 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis     TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. What is the study of heredity particularly as it relates to the transfer heritable physical characteristics called?
a. Chromatids
b. Karyotype
c. Genetics
d. Histones
ANS:  C Genetics refers to the study of heredity, particularly as it relates to the ability of individual genes to transfer heritable physical characteristics. Each somatic chromosome, also called an autosome, is made of two strands, called chromatids, which are joined near the center. A karyotype is the arrangement of human chromosomes from largest to smallest. A specialized class of proteins called histones organizes the double-stranded DNA into what looks like a tightly coiled telephone cord. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 54 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. Each chromosome consists of an unbroken strand of DNA inside the nucleus of the cell. What is the arrangement of human chromosomes termed?
a. Chromatids
b. Karyotype
c. Genomics
d. Histones
ANS:  B A karyotype is the arrangement of human chromosomes from largest to smallest. Each somatic chromosome, also called an autosome, is made of two strands, called chromatids, which are joined near the center. Genomics refers to the study of all of the genetic material within cells and encompasses the environmental interaction and impact on biologic and physical characteristics. A specialized class of proteins called histones organizes the double-stranded DNA into what looks like a tightly coiled telephone cord. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 39 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. What is the study of all the genetic material within the cell and its impact on biologic and physical characteristics called?
a. Chromatids
b. Karyotype
c. Genomics
d. Histones
ANS:  C Genomics refers to the study of all of the genetic material within cells and encompasses the environmental interaction and impact on biologic and physical characteristics. Each somatic chromosome, also called an autosome, is made of two strands, called chromatids, which are joined near the center. A karyotype is the arrangement of human chromosomes from largest to smallest. A specialized class of proteins called histones organizes the double-stranded DNA into what looks like a tightly coiled telephone cord. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 39 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. A specialized class of proteins that organizes the double-stranded DNA into what looks like a tightly coiled telephone cord is known which of the following?
a. Chromatids
b. Karyotype
c. Genomics
d. Histones
ANS:  D A specialized class of proteins called histones organizes the double-stranded DNA into what looks like a tightly coiled telephone cord. Genomics refers to the study of all of the genetic material within cells and encompasses the environmental interaction and impact on biologic and physical characteristics. Each somatic chromosome, also called an autosome, is made of two strands, called chromatids, which are joined near the center. A karyotype is the arrangement of human chromosomes from largest to smallest. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 39 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. To achieve a consistent distance across the width of the DNA strand, the nucleotide base guanine (G) can only be paired with what other genetic material?
a. Adenine (A)
b. Thymine (T)
c. Cytosine (C)
d. Sex chromosome X
ANS:  C Four nucleotide bases—adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C)—comprise the “letters” in the genetic DNA “alphabet.” The bases in the double helix are paired T with A and G with C. The nucleotide bases are designed so that only G can pair with C and only T can pair with A to achieve a consistent distance across the width of the DNA strand. The TA and GC combinations are known as base pairs. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluating            REF:   p. 40 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis     TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. Why are monozygotic twins separated at birth used to study the effects of genetics versus environment?
a. They share an identical genome.
b. They have different sex chromosomes.
c. They have mirror chromosomes.
d. They have identical health issues.
ANS:  A Studies of identical twins offer a unique opportunity to investigate the association of genetics, environment, and health. Identical twins are monozygotic and share an identical genome. Monozygotic twins are the same sex. Studies occur much less frequently today because tremendous efforts are made to keep siblings together when they are adopted. Genetics can be stable in a study group, but the environment and health issues are dynamic even in a controlled study group. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 48 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: General        TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. The process that is used to make polypeptide chains that constitute proteins can be written as:
a. RNA ® DNA ® protein.
b. DNA ® RNA ® protein.
c. Protein ® RNA ® DNA.
d. Protein ® DNA ® RNA.
ANS:  B The nucleotides A, T, C, and G can be thought of as “letters” of a genetic alphabet that are combined into three-letter “words” that are transcribed (written) by the intermediary of ribonucleic acid (RNA). The RNA translates the three-letter words into the amino acids used to make the polypeptide chains that constitute proteins. This process may be written as DNA ® RNA ® protein. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 41 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis     TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. What are the studies called that are done on large, extended families who have several family members affected with a rare disease?
a. Genetic association
b. Genetic epidemiology
c. Kinships
d. Phenotypes
ANS:  C In genetic epidemiologic research of a rare disease, it can be a challenge to find enough people to study. One method is to work with large, extended families, known as kinships, which have several family members affected with the disease. Genetic association studies are usually conducted in large, unrelated groups based on demonstration of a phenotype (disease trait or symptoms) and associated genotype. Genetic epidemiology represents the fusion of epidemiologic studies and genetic and genomic research methods. Phenotypes are different at different stages of a disease and are influenced by medications, environmental factors, and gene–gene interaction. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 48 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis     TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. What is an example of direct-to-consumer genomic testing?
a. Genetic testing through amniocentesis
b. Paternity testing from buccal swabs of the child and father
c. Biopsy of a lump for cancer
d. Drug testing using hair follicles
ANS:  B An example of direct-to-consumer testing is paternity testing from buccal swabs of the child and father. Genetic testing can be done through biopsies and amniocentesis, but they are performed in a facility by a medical professional. Drug testing and genomic testing are two different tests and are unrelated. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Evaluating            REF:   p. 53 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis     TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance
  1. What was the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008 designed to prevent from happening?
a. Abuse of genetic information in employment and health insurance decisions
b. Genetic counselors from reporting results to the health insurance companies
c. Mandatory genetics testing of all individuals with certain diseases
d. Information sharing between biobanks that are studying the same genetic disorders
ANS:  A The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008 is an essential piece of legislation designed to prevent abuse of genetic information in employment and health insurance decisions in the United States. One of the paramount concerns in the genomic era is to protect the privacy of individuals’ unique genetic information. Many countries have established biobanks as repositories of genetic material, and many tissue samples are stored in medical center tissue banks. Some people who may be at risk for a disorder disease will not be tested because they fear that a positive result may affect their employability. GINA also mandates that genetic information about an individual and his or her family has the same protections as health information. PTS:   1                    DIF:    Cognitive Level: Remembering      REF:   p. 53 OBJ:   Nursing Process Step: Diagnosis     TOP:   Genetics in Critical Care MSC:  NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance MULTIPLE RESPONSE
  1. Which patients would be candidates for genetic testing for long QT syndrome (LQTS)? (Select all that apply.)
a. Patients with prolonged QT interval during a cardiac and genetic work-up
b. Family history of positive genotype and negative phenotype
c. Patients diagnosed with torsades de pointes
d. Family history of sudden cardiac death
e. Family history of bleeding disorders
f. Family history of obesity
ANS:  A, B, C, D

Test Bank Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women’s Health Nursing 7th Edition

Chapter 01: Maternity and Women’s Health Care Today Foundations of Maternal-Newborn & Women’s Health Nursing, 7th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A nurse educator is teaching a group of nursing students about the history of family-centered maternity care. Which statement should the nurse include in the teaching session? a. The Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921 promoted family-centered care. b. Changes in the pharmacologic management of labor prompted family-centered care. c. Demands by physicians for family involvement in childbirth increased the practice of family-centered care. d. Parental requests that infants be allowed to remain with them rather than in a nursery initiated the practice of family-centered care. ANS: D As research began to identify the benefits of early, extended parent-infant contact, parents began to insist that the infant remain with them. This gradually developed into the practice of rooming-in and finally to family-centered maternity care. The Sheppard-Towner Act provided funds for state-managed programs for mothers and children but did not promote family-centered care. The changes in pharmacologic management of labor were not a factor in family-centered maternity care. Family-centered care was a request by parents, not physicians. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 2. Expectant parents ask a prenatal nurse educator, “Which setting for childbirth limits the amount of parent-infant interaction?” Which answer should the nurse provide for these parents in order to assist them in choosing an appropriate birth setting? a. Birth center b. Homebirth c. Traditional hospital birth d. Labor, birth, and recovery room ANS: C In the traditional hospital setting, the mother may see the infant for only short feeding periods, and the infant is cared for in a separate nursery. Birth centers are set up to allow an increase in parent-infant contact. Home births allow the greatest amount of parent-infant contact. The labor, birth, recovery, and postpartum room setting allows for increased parent-infant contact. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 3. Which statement best describes the advantage of a labor, birth, recovery, and postpartum (LDRP) room? a. The family is in a familiar environment. b. They are less expensive than traditional hospital rooms. c. The infant is removed to the nursery to allow the mother to rest. d. The woman’s support system is encouraged to stay until discharge. ANS: D NURSINGTB.COM Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing 7th Edition Murray Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M Sleeping equipment is provided in a private room. A hospital setting is never a familiar environment to new parents. An LDRP room is not less expensive than a traditional hospital room. The baby remains with the mother at all times and is not removed to the nursery for routine care or testing. The father or other designated members of the mother’s support system are encouraged to stay at all times. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: Patient Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 4. Which nursing intervention is an independent function of the professional nurse? a. Administering oral analgesics b. Requesting diagnostic studies c. Teaching the patient perineal care d. Providing wound care to a surgical incision ANS: C Nurses are now responsible for various independent functions, including teaching, counseling, and intervening in nonmedical problems. Interventions initiated by the physician and carried out by the nurse are called dependent functions. Administrating oral analgesics is a dependent function; it is initiated by a physician and carried out by a nurse. Requesting diagnostic studies is a dependent function. Providing wound care is a dependent function; however, the physician prescribes the type of wound care through direct orders or protocol. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: Patient Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment 5. Which response by the nurse is the most therapeutic when the patient states, “I’m so afraid to have a cesarean birth”? a. “Everything will be OK.” b. “Don’t worry about it. It will be over soon.” c. “What concerns you most about a cesarean birth?” d. “The physician will be in later and you can talk to him.” ANS: C The response, “What concerns you most about a cesarean birth” focuses on what the patient is saying and asks for clarification, which is the most therapeutic response. The response, “Everything will be ok” is belittling the patient’s feelings. The response, “Don’t worry about it. It will be over soon” will indicate that the patient’s feelings are not important. The response, “The physician will be in later and you can talk to him” does not allow the patient to verbalize her feelings when she wishes to do that. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: Patient Needs: Psychosocial Integrity 6. In which step of the nursing process does the nurse determine the appropriate interventions for the identified nursing diagnosis? a. Planning b. Evaluation c. Assessment d. Intervention ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing 7th Edition Murray Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M The third step in the nursing process involves planning care for problems that were identified during assessment. The evaluation phase is determining whether the goals have been met. During the assessment phase, data are collected. The intervention phase is when the plan of care is carried out. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: Patient Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment 7. Which goal is most appropriate for the collaborative problem of wound infection? a. The patient will not exhibit further signs of infection. b. Maintain the patient’s fluid intake at 1000 mL/8 hour. c. The patient will have a temperature of 98.6F within 2 days. d. Monitor the patient to detect therapeutic response to antibiotic therapy. ANS: D In a collaborative problem, the goal should be nurse-oriented and reflect the nursing interventions of monitoring or observing. Monitoring for complications such as further signs of infection is an independent nursing role. Intake and output is an independent nursing role. Monitoring a patient’s temperature is an independent nursing role. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: Patient Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment 8. Which nursing intervention is written correctly? a. Force fluids as necessary. b. Observe interaction with the infant. c. Encourage turning, coughing, and deep breathing. d. Assist to ambulate for 10 minutes at 8 AM, 2 PM, and 6 PM. ANS: D Interventions might not be carried out if they are not detailed and specific. “Force fluids” is not specific; it does not state how much or how often. Encouraging the patient to turn, cough, and breathe deeply is not detailed or specific. Observing interaction with the infant does not state how often this procedure should be done. Assisting the patient to ambulate for 10 minutes within a certain timeframe is specific. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: Patient Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment 9. The patient makes the statement: “I’m afraid to take the baby home tomorrow.” Which response by the nurse would be the most therapeutic? a. “You’re afraid to take the baby home?” b. “Don’t you have a mother who can come and help?” c. “You should read the literature I gave you before you leave.” d. “I was scared when I took my first baby home, but everything worked out.” ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Foundations of Maternal-Newborn and Women's Health Nursing 7th Edition Murray Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M This response uses reflection to show concern and open communication. The other choices are blocks to communication. Asking if the patient has a mother who can come and assist blocks further communication with the patient. Telling the patient to read the literature before leaving does not allow the patient to express her feelings further. Sharing your own birth experience is inappropriate. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: Patient Needs: Psychosocial Integrity 10. The nurse is writing an expected outcome for the nursing diagnosis—acute pain related to tissue trauma, secondary to vaginal birth, as evidenced by patient stating pain of 8 on a scale of 10. Which expected outcome is correctly stated for this problem? a. Patient will state that pain is a 2 on a scale of 10. b. Patient will have a reduction in pain after administration of the prescribed analgesic. c. Patient will state an absence of pain 1 hour after administration of the prescribed analgesic. d. Patient will state that pain is a 2 on a scale of 10, 1 hour after the administration of the prescribed analgesic. ANS: D The outcome should be patient-centered, measurable, realistic, and attainable and within a specified timeframe. Patient stating that her pain is now 2 on a scale of 10 lacks a timeframe. Patient having a reduction in pain after administration of the prescribed analgesic lacks a measurement. Patient stating an absence of pain 1 hour after the administration of prescribed analgesic is unrealistic. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: Patient Needs: Physiologic Integrity 11. Which nursing diagnosis should the nurse identify as a priority for a patient in active labor? a. Risk for anxiety related to upcoming birth b. Risk for imbalanced nutrition related to NPO status c. Risk for altered family processes related to new addition to the family d. Risk for injury (maternal) related to altered sensations and positional or physical changes ANS: D The nurse should determine which problem needs immediate attention. Risk for injury is the problem that has the priority at this time because it is a safety problem. Risk for anxiety, imbalanced nutrition, and altered family processes are not the priorities at this time. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: Patient Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment

Test Bank Focus on Nursing Pharmacology 8th Edition

Test Bank - Focus on Nursing Pharmacology (8th Edition by Karch) Table of Contents Chapter 01 - Introduction to Drugs Chapter 02 - Drugs and the Body Chapter 03 - Toxic Effects of Drugs Chapter 04 - The Nursing Process in Drug Therapy and Patient Safety Chapter 05 - Dosage Calculations Chapter 06 - Challenges to Effective Drug Therapy Chapter 07 - Introduction to Cell Physiology Chapter 08 - Antiinfective Agents Chapter 09 - Antibiotics Chapter 10 - Antiviral Agents Chapter 11 - Antifungal Agents Chapter 12 - Antiprotozoal Agents Chapter 13 - Anthelmintic Agents Chapter 14 - Antineoplastic Agents Chapter 15 - Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation Chapter 16 - Antiinflammatory, Antiarthritis, and Related Agents Chapter 17 - Immune Modulators Chapter 18 - Vaccines and Sera Chapter 19 - Introduction to Nerves and the Nervous System Chapter 20 - Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Chapter 21 - Antidepressant Agents Chapter 22 - Psychotherapeutic Agents Chapter 23 - Antiseizure Agents Chapter 24 - Antiparkinsonism Agents Chapter 25 - Muscle Relaxants Chapter 26 - Narcotics, Narcotic Antagonists, and Antimigraine Agents Chapter 27 - General and Local Anesthetic Agents Chapter 28 - Neuromuscular Junction Blocking Agents Chapter 29 - Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 30 - Adrenergic Agonists Chapter 31 - Adrenergic Antagonists Chapter 32 - Cholinergic Agonists Chapter 33 - Anticholinergic Agents Chapter 34 - Introduction to the Endocrine System Chapter 35 - Hypothalamic and Pituitary Agents Chapter 36 - Adrenocortical Agents Chapter 37 - Thyroid and Parathyroid Agents Chapter 38 - Agents to Control Blood Glucose Levels Chapter 39 - Introduction to the Reproductive System Chapter 40 - Drugs Affecting the Female Reproductive System Chapter 41 - Drugs Affecting the Male Reproductive System Chapter 42 - Introduction to the Cardiovascular System Chapter 43 - Drugs Affecting Blood Pressure Chapter 44 - Agents for Treating Heart Failure Chapter 45 - Antiarrhythmic Agents Chapter 46 - Antianginal Agents Chapter 47 - Lipid-Lowering Agents Chapter 48 - Drugs Affecting Blood Coagulation Chapter 49 - Drugs Used to Treat Anemias Chapter 50 - Introduction to the Renal System Test Bank - Focus on Nursing Pharmacology (8th Edition by Karch) 2 Chapter 51 - Diuretic Agents Chapter 52 - Drugs Affecting the Urinary Tract and the Bladder Chapter 53 - Introduction to the Respiratory System Chapter 54 - Drugs Acting on the Upper Respiratory Tract Chapter 55 - Drugs Acting on the Lower Respiratory Tract Chapter 56 - Introduction to the Gastrointestinal System Chapter 57 - Drugs Affecting Gastrointestinal Secretions Chapter 58 - Drugs Affecting Gastrointestinal Motility Chapter 59 - Antiemetic Agents

Test Bank for Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurse Prescribers 4th Edition by Woo

Chapter 1. The Role of the Nurse Practitioner   Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.   ____    1.   Nurse practitioner prescriptive authority is regulated by:
1. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing
2. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration
3. The State Board of Nursing for each state
4. The State Board of Pharmacy
    ____    2.   The benefits to the patient of having an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) prescriber include:
1. Nurses know more about Pharmacology than other prescribers because they take it both in their basic nursing program and in their APRN program.
2. Nurses care for the patient from a holistic approach and include the patient in decision making regarding their care.
3. APRNs are less likely to prescribe narcotics and other controlled substances.
4. APRNs are able to prescribe independently in all states, whereas a physician’s assistant needs to have a physician supervising their practice.
    ____    3.   Clinical judgment in prescribing includes:
1. Factoring in the cost to the patient of the medication prescribed
2. Always prescribing the newest medication available for the disease process
3. Handing out drug samples to poor patients
4. Prescribing all generic medications to cut costs
    ____    4.   Criteria for choosing an effective drug for a disorder include:
1. Asking the patient what drug they think would work best for them
2. Consulting nationally recognized guidelines for disease management
3. Prescribing medications that are available as samples before writing a prescription
4. Following U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration guidelines for prescribing
    ____    5.   Nurse practitioner practice may thrive under health-care reform because of:
1. The demonstrated ability of nurse practitioners to control costs and improve patient outcomes
2. The fact that nurse practitioners will be able to practice independently
3. The fact that nurse practitioners will have full reimbursement under health-care reform
4. The ability to shift accountability for Medicaid to the state level
  Chapter 1. The Role of the Nurse Practitioner Answer Section   MULTIPLE CHOICE  
  1. ANS:  3                     PTS:   1
 
  1. ANS:  2                     PTS:   1
 
  1. ANS:  1                     PTS:   1
 
  1. ANS:  2                     PTS:   1
 
  1. ANS:  1                     PTS:   1
Chapter 01: Using Evidence in Practice Perry et al.: Clinical Nursing Skills & Techniques, 9th Edition   MULTIPLE CHOICE  
  1. Evidence-based practice is a problem-solving approach to making decisions about patient care that is grounded in:
a. the latest information found in textbooks.
b. systematically conducted research studies.
c. tradition in clinical practice.
d. quality improvement and risk-management data.
    ANS:   B The best evidence comes from well-designed, systematically conducted research studies described in scientific journals. Portions of a textbook often become outdated by the time it is published. Many health care settings do not have a process to help staff adopt new evidence in practice, and nurses in practice settings lack easy access to risk-management data, relying instead on tradition or convenience. Some sources of evidence do not originate from research. These include quality improvement and risk-management data; infection control data; retrospective or concurrent chart reviews; and clinicians’ expertise. Although non–research-based evidence is often very valuable, it is important that you learn to rely more on research-based evidence.   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension       REF:    Text reference: p. 2 OBJ:    Discuss the benefits of evidence-based practice. TOP:    Evidence-Based Practice                   KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. When evidence-based practice is used, patient care will be:
a. standardized for all.
b. unhampered by patient culture.
c. variable according to the situation.
d. safe from the hazards of critical thinking.
    ANS:   C Using your clinical expertise and considering patients’ cultures, values, and preferences ensures that you will apply available evidence in practice ethically and appropriately. Even when you use the best evidence available, application and outcomes will differ; as a nurse, you will develop critical thinking skills to determine whether evidence is relevant and appropriate.   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    Text reference: p. 2 OBJ:    Discuss the benefits of evidence-based practice. TOP:    Evidence-Based Practice                   KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. When a PICOT question is developed, the letter that corresponds with the usual standard of care is:
a. P.
b. I.
c. C.
d. O.
    ANS:   C C = Comparison of interest. What standard of care or current intervention do you usually use now in practice? P = Patient population of interest. Identify your patient by age, gender, ethnicity, disease, or health problem. I = Intervention of interest. What intervention (e.g., treatment, diagnostic test, and prognostic factor) do you think is worthwhile to use in practice? O = Outcome. What result (e.g., change in patient’s behavior, physical finding, and change in patient’s perception) do you wish to achieve or observe as the result of an intervention?   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge             REF:    Text reference: p. 3 OBJ:    Develop a PICO question.                 TOP:    PICO KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. A well-developed PICOT question helps the nurse:
a. search for evidence.
b. include all five elements of the sequence.
c. find as many articles as possible in a literature search.
d. accept standard clinical routines.
    ANS:   A The more focused a question that you ask is, the easier it is to search for evidence in the scientific literature. A well-designed PICOT question does not have to include all five elements, nor does it have to follow the PICOT sequence. Do not be satisfied with clinical routines. Always question and use critical thinking to consider better ways to provide patient care.   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Analysis                  REF:    Text reference: p. 3 OBJ:    Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP:    Evidence-Based Practice                   KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. The nurse is not sure that the procedure the patient requires is the best possible for the situation. Utilizing which of the following resources would be the quickest way to review research on the topic?
a. CINAHL
b. PubMed
c. MEDLINE
d. The Cochrane Database
    ANS:   D The Cochrane Community Database of Systematic Reviews is a valuable source of synthesized evidence (i.e., pre-appraised evidence). The Cochrane Database includes the full text of regularly updated systematic reviews and protocols for reviews currently happening. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed are among the most comprehensive databases and represent the scientific knowledge base of health care.   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis                REF:    Text reference: p. 4 OBJ:    Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP:    Evidence-Based Practice                   KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. The nurse is getting ready to develop a plan of care for a patient who has a specific need. The best source for developing this plan of care would probably be:
a. The Cochrane Database.
b. MEDLINE.
c. NGC.
d. CINAHL.
    ANS:   C The National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC) is a database supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). It contains clinical guidelines—systematically developed statements about a plan of care for a specific set of clinical circumstances involving a specific patient population. The NGC is a valuable source when you want to develop a plan of care for a patient. The Cochrane Community Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and CINAHL are all valuable sources of synthesized evidence (i.e., pre-appraised evidence).   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis                REF:    Text reference: p. 4 OBJ:    Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP:    Evidence-Based Practice                   KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. The nurse has done a literature search and found 25 possible articles on the topic that she is studying. To determine which of those 25 best fit her inquiry, the nurse first should look at:
a. the abstracts.
b. the literature reviews.
c. the “Methods” sections.
d. the narrative sections.
    ANS:   A An abstract is a brief summary of an article that quickly tells you whether the article is research based or clinically based. An abstract summarizes the purpose of the study or clinical query, the major themes or findings, and the implications for nursing practice. The literature review usually gives you a good idea of how past research led to the researcher’s question. The “Methods” or “Design” section explains how a research study is organized and conducted to answer the research question or to test the hypothesis. The narrative of a manuscript differs according to the type of evidence-based article—clinical or research.   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    Text reference: p. 7 OBJ:    Discuss elements to review when critiquing the scientific literature. TOP:    Randomized Controlled Trials           KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. The nurse wants to determine the effects of cardiac rehabilitation program attendance on the level of postmyocardial depression for individuals who have had a myocardial infarction. The type of study that would best capture this information would be a:
a. randomized controlled trial.
b. qualitative study.
c. case control study.
d. descriptive study.
    ANS:   B Qualitative studies examine individuals’ experiences with health problems and the contexts in which these experiences occur. A qualitative study is best in this case of an individual nurse who wants to examine the effectiveness of a local program. Randomized controlled trials involve close monitoring of control groups and treatment groups to test an intervention against the usual standard of care. Case control studies typically compare one group of subjects with a certain condition against another group without the condition, to look for associations between the condition and predictor variables. Descriptive studies focus mainly on describing the concepts under study.   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Synthesis                REF:    Text reference: p. 6 OBJ:    Discuss ways to apply evidence in nursing practice. TOP:    Randomized Controlled Trials           KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)  
  1. Six months after an early mobility protocol was implemented, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients was decreased. This is an example of what stage in the EBP process?
a. Asking a clinical question
b. Applying the evidence
c. Evaluating the practice decision
d. Communicating your results
    ANS:   C After implementing a practice change, your next step is to evaluate the effect. You do this by analyzing the outcomes data that you collected during the pilot project. Outcomes evaluation tells you whether your practice change improved conditions, created no change, or worsened conditions.   DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application             REF:    Text reference: p. 9 OBJ:    Discuss ways to apply evidence in nursing practice. TOP:    Evidence-Based Practice                   KEY:   Nursing Process Step: Evaluation MSC:   NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (safety and infection control)   MULTIPLE RESPONSE  
  1. To use evidence-based practice appropriately, you need to collect the most relevant and best evidence and to critically appraise the evidence you gather. This process also includes: (Select all that apply.)
a. asking a clinical question.
b. applying the evidence.
c. evaluating the practice decision.
d. communicating your results.
    ANS:   A, B, C, D
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