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Test Bank Ebersole and Hess’ Toward Healthy Aging 10th Edition Touhy

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Test Bank Ebersole and Hess’ Toward Healthy Aging 10th Edition Touhy

Chapter 01: Health and Wellness in an Aging Society
Touhy: Ebersole & Hess’ Toward Healthy Aging, 9th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. When asked by new parents what the life expectancy is for their African American newborn,
the nurse replies that, “2010 statistics indicate that your son:
a. will have a life expectancy of approximately 65 years.”
b. can realistically expect to live into his late 80s.”
c. has a good chance of celebrating his 75th birthday.”
d. is likely to live into his late 90s.”
ANS: C
In 2010, men in the United States at age 60 can expect to live another 22 years. The life
expectancy of African American men is about 4.7 years less than white men. Of the options
above, C is the only response that fits into those parameters. The other options are not
supported by reliable research.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 3
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. A nurse is planning care for a group of super-centenarians in an assisted living facility. The
nurse considers which of the following?
a. Most super-centenarians are functionally independent or require minimal
assistance with activities of daily living
b. The majority of super-centenarians have cognitive impairment
c. The number of super-centenarians is expected to decrease in coming years as a
result of heart disease and stroke
d. It is theorized that super-centenarians survived as long as they have due to genetic
mutations that made them less susceptible to common diseases
ANS: A
Research supports that most super-centenarians are functionally and cognitively intact,
requiring minimal assistance with ADLs. The number of super-centenarians is expected to
increase in coming years as the number of older adults increases. The reason why individuals
survived as long as they have is not known.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: p. 4
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. One reason why many “baby boomers” have multiple chronic conditions such as heart
disease, diabetes, and arthritis is that:
a. they have less access to medication and other treatment regimens.
b. there was a lack of importance placed on healthy living as they were growing up.
c. they did not have access to immunizations against communicable disease when
they were children.
d. they grew up in an era of rampant poverty and malnutrition.

ANS: B
The baby boomers, individuals born between 1946 and 1964, post-WWII, have better access
to medication and treatment regimens than other cohorts. They have had the benefit of the
development of immunizations against communicable diseases. They grew up in an era of
prosperity post-WWII. However, there was a lack of importance placed on what we now
consider healthy living when they were younger. Smoking, for example, was not condoned,
but was considered a symbol of status. Candy in the shape of cigarettes was popular, and there
was much secondhand smoke.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: p. 6
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. A nurse is planning an education program on wellness in a local senior citizen center. The
nurse plans to provide education on the importance of immunizations, annual physical
examinations, screening for diabetes, and vision and hearing screening. It is important for the
nurse to understand which of the following?
a. Approximately 40% of older adults (ages 65 and older) utilize available preventive
services
b. Preventive strategies are more widely used in the 40-64 age group than in the 65
and over age group
c. The research on health promotion strategies in older adults demonstrates that they
have low efficacy
d. There is an abundance of research specific to health promotion and aging
ANS: A
Approximately 40% of individuals, ages 65 and older, utilize the preventive services that are
available to them. However, only 24% of those between the ages of 40 and 64 do so. There is
a paucity of research specific to health promotion and aging; however, the research that exists
demonstrates that health promotion strategies are highly effective.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 7
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. A nurse is caring for an 85-year-old male client with diabetes in a community setting. The
nurse promotes functional wellness by which of the following activities?
a. Encouraging the client maintains current levels of physical activity
b. Assisting the client to receive all the recommended preventive screenings that are
appropriate for his age group
c. Teaching the patient how to use a rolling walker so that he can ambulate for longer
distances
d. Encouraging the client to attend his weekly chess games
ANS: A
Maintaining existing levels of physical activity is consistent with functional wellness.
Teaching the client how to use a rolling walker enables the client to remain active at the
highest level possible, which is an example of promoting functional wellness. Receiving
recommended screening is an example of promoting biological wellness. The use of a rolling
walker should be based on assessment of physical ability. Encouraging the client to attend
weekly chess games is an example of promoting social wellness.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 10
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. Based on the census reports of 2010, the typical profile of a centenarian in the United States
includes which of the following characteristics?
a. A Caucasian woman who lives in an urban area of a Southern state
b. An African American woman who lives in a rural area of a Southern state
c. A Hispanic man who lives in an urban area of a Midwestern state
d. A Caucasian man who lives in a rural area of a Midwestern state
ANS: A
Based on the 2010 U.S. Census data, centenarians were overwhelmingly white (82.5%),
women (82.8%), and living in urban areas of the Southern states.
DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 5
TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

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DescriptionEdition: 10th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadEdition: 5th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: Nathe Edition: 4th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadBy: McWay Edition: 4th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadEdition: 7th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Test bank Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant DownloadEdition: 8th Edition Format: Downloadable ZIP Fille Resource Type: Solution manual Duration: Unlimited downloads Delivery: Instant Download
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Test Bank Ebersole and Hess’ Toward Healthy Aging 10th Edition Touhy

Chapter 01: Health and Wellness in an Aging Society Touhy: Ebersole & Hess' Toward Healthy Aging, 9th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. When asked by new parents what the life expectancy is for their African American newborn, the nurse replies that, “2010 statistics indicate that your son: a. will have a life expectancy of approximately 65 years.” b. can realistically expect to live into his late 80s.” c. has a good chance of celebrating his 75th birthday.” d. is likely to live into his late 90s.” ANS: C In 2010, men in the United States at age 60 can expect to live another 22 years. The life expectancy of African American men is about 4.7 years less than white men. Of the options above, C is the only response that fits into those parameters. The other options are not supported by reliable research. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 3 TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 2. A nurse is planning care for a group of super-centenarians in an assisted living facility. The nurse considers which of the following? a. Most super-centenarians are functionally independent or require minimal assistance with activities of daily living b. The majority of super-centenarians have cognitive impairment c. The number of super-centenarians is expected to decrease in coming years as a result of heart disease and stroke d. It is theorized that super-centenarians survived as long as they have due to genetic mutations that made them less susceptible to common diseases ANS: A Research supports that most super-centenarians are functionally and cognitively intact, requiring minimal assistance with ADLs. The number of super-centenarians is expected to increase in coming years as the number of older adults increases. The reason why individuals survived as long as they have is not known. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: p. 4 TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 3. One reason why many “baby boomers” have multiple chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and arthritis is that: a. they have less access to medication and other treatment regimens. b. there was a lack of importance placed on healthy living as they were growing up. c. they did not have access to immunizations against communicable disease when they were children. d. they grew up in an era of rampant poverty and malnutrition. ANS: B The baby boomers, individuals born between 1946 and 1964, post-WWII, have better access to medication and treatment regimens than other cohorts. They have had the benefit of the development of immunizations against communicable diseases. They grew up in an era of prosperity post-WWII. However, there was a lack of importance placed on what we now consider healthy living when they were younger. Smoking, for example, was not condoned, but was considered a symbol of status. Candy in the shape of cigarettes was popular, and there was much secondhand smoke. DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering REF: p. 6 TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 4. A nurse is planning an education program on wellness in a local senior citizen center. The nurse plans to provide education on the importance of immunizations, annual physical examinations, screening for diabetes, and vision and hearing screening. It is important for the nurse to understand which of the following? a. Approximately 40% of older adults (ages 65 and older) utilize available preventive services b. Preventive strategies are more widely used in the 40-64 age group than in the 65 and over age group c. The research on health promotion strategies in older adults demonstrates that they have low efficacy d. There is an abundance of research specific to health promotion and aging ANS: A Approximately 40% of individuals, ages 65 and older, utilize the preventive services that are available to them. However, only 24% of those between the ages of 40 and 64 do so. There is a paucity of research specific to health promotion and aging; however, the research that exists demonstrates that health promotion strategies are highly effective. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding REF: p. 7 TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 5. A nurse is caring for an 85-year-old male client with diabetes in a community setting. The nurse promotes functional wellness by which of the following activities? a. Encouraging the client maintains current levels of physical activity b. Assisting the client to receive all the recommended preventive screenings that are appropriate for his age group c. Teaching the patient how to use a rolling walker so that he can ambulate for longer distances d. Encouraging the client to attend his weekly chess games ANS: A Maintaining existing levels of physical activity is consistent with functional wellness. Teaching the client how to use a rolling walker enables the client to remain active at the highest level possible, which is an example of promoting functional wellness. Receiving recommended screening is an example of promoting biological wellness. The use of a rolling walker should be based on assessment of physical ability. Encouraging the client to attend weekly chess games is an example of promoting social wellness. DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 10 TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance 6. Based on the census reports of 2010, the typical profile of a centenarian in the United States includes which of the following characteristics? a. A Caucasian woman who lives in an urban area of a Southern state b. An African American woman who lives in a rural area of a Southern state c. A Hispanic man who lives in an urban area of a Midwestern state d. A Caucasian man who lives in a rural area of a Midwestern state ANS: A Based on the 2010 U.S. Census data, centenarians were overwhelmingly white (82.5%), women (82.8%), and living in urban areas of the Southern states. DIF: Cognitive Level: Applying REF: p. 5 TOP: Integrated Process: Teaching/Learning MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance

Test Bank For Foundations for Population Health in Community Public Health Nursing 5th Edition Stanhope

Chapter 01: Community- and Prevention-Oriented Practice to Improve Population Health Stanhope: Foundations for Population Health in Community/Public Health Nursing,5th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following best describes community-based nursing? a. A practice in which care is provided for individuals and families b. Providing care with a focus on the group’s needs c. Giving care with a focus on the aggregate’s needs d. A value system in which all clients receive optimal care ANS: A By definition, community-based nursing is a setting-specific practice in which care is provided for “sick” individuals and families where they live, work, and attend school. The emphasis is on acute and chronic care and the provision of comprehensive, coordinated, and continuous care. These nurses may be generalists or specialists in maternal–infant, pediatric, adult, or psychiatric mental health nursing. Community-based nursing emphasizes acute and chronic care to individuals and families, rather than focusing on groups, aggregates, or systems. 2. Which of the following best describes community-oriented nursing? a. Focusing on the provision of care to individuals and families b. Providing care to manage acute or chronic conditions c. Giving direct care to ill individuals within their family setting d. Having the goal of health promotion and disease prevention ANS: D By definition, community-oriented nursing has the goal of preserving, protecting, or maintaining health and preventing disease to promote the quality of life. All nurses may focus on individuals and families, give direct care to ill persons within their family setting, and help manage acute or chronic conditions. These definitions are not specific to community-oriented nursing. 3. Which of the following is the primary focus of public health nursing? a. Families and groups b. Illness-oriented care c. Individuals within the family unit d. Health care of communities and populations ANS: D In public health nursing the primary focus is on the health care of communities and populations rather than on individuals, groups, and families. The goal is to prevent disease and preserve, promote, restore, and protect health for the community and the population within it. Community-based nurses deal primarily with illness-oriented care of individuals and families acorss the life span. The aim is to amanage acute and chronic health conditions in the community, and the focus of practice is on individual or family-centered illness care. Foundations for Population Health in Community Public Health Nursing 5th Edition Stanhope 4. Which of the following is responsible for the dramatic increase in life expectancy during the 20th century? a. Technology increases in the field of medical laboratory research b. Advances in surgical techniques and procedures c. Sanitation and other population-based prevention programs d. Use of antibiotics to fight infections ANS: C Improvements in control of infectious diseases through immunizations, sanitation, and other population-based prevention programs led to the increase in life expectancy from less than 50 years in 1900 to more than 78 years in 2013. Although people are excited when a new drug is discovered that cures a disease or when a new way to transplant organs is perfected, it is important to know about the significant gains in the health of populations that have come largely from public health accomplishments. 5. A nurse is developing a plan to decrease the number of premature deaths in the community. Which of the following interventions would most likely be implemented by the nurse? a. Increase the community’s knowledge about hospice care. b. Promote healthy lifestyle behavior choices among the community members. c. Encourage employers to have wellness centers at each industrial site. d. Ensure timely and effective medical intervention and treatment for community members. ANS: B Public health approaches could help prevent premature deaths by influencing the way people eat, drink, drive, engage in exercise, and treat the environment. Increasing knowledge of hospice care, encouraging on-site wellness centers, and ensuring timely treatment of medical conditions do not address the focus of improving overall health through health promotion strategies. This is the major method that is suggested to decrease the incidence of premature death. 6. Which of the following is a basic assumption of public health efforts? a. Health disparities among any groups are morally and legally wrong. b. Health care is the most important priority in government planning and funding. c. The health of individuals cannot be separated from the health of the community. d. The government is responsible for lengthening the life span of Americans. ANS: C Public health practice focuses on the community as a whole, and the effect of the community’s health status (resources) on the health of individuals, families, and groups. The goal is to prevent disease and disability and promote and protect the health of the community as a whole. Public health can be described as what society collectively does to ensure that conditions exist in which people can be healthy. The basic assumptions of public health do not judge the morality of health disparities. The focus is on prevention of illness not on spending more on illness care. Additionally, individual responsibility for making healthy choices is the directive for lengthening life span not the role of the government. 7. Which of the following actions would most likely be performed by a public health nurse? a. Asking community leaders what interventions should be chosen b. Assessing the community and deciding on appropriate interventions c. Using data from the main health care institutions in the community to determine Foundations for Population Health in Community Public Health Nursing 5th Edition Stanhope needed health services d. Working with community groups to create policies to improve the environment ANS: D Although the public health nurse might engage in any of the tasks listed, he or she works primarily with members of the community to carry out core public health functions, including assessment of the population as a whole and engaging in promoting health and improving the environment. The interventions of asking community leaders which interventions should be chosen, asessing the community and deciding on appropriate interventions, and using data from health care institutions do not demonstrate the engagement of the community when making decisions about what the community actually wants and needs. 8. Which of the following public health nurses most clearly fulfills the responsibilities of this role? a. The nurse who met with several groups to discuss community recreation issues b. The nurse who spent the day attending meetings of various health agencies c. The nurse who talked to several people about their particular health concerns d. The nurse who watched the city council meeting on local cable television ANS: B Any of these descriptions might represent a nurse communicating, cooperating, or collaborating with community residents or groups about health concerns. However, the nurse who spent the day attending meetings of various health agencies is the most representative, because in public health, concerns are addressed from a broader perspective. In public health, broad concerns of the community should be addressed. Concerns are broader than recreation, individual concerns are not as important as aggregate priorities, and watching television (a one-way form of communication) is less effective than interacting with others. 9. Which of the following best defines aggregate? a. A large group of persons b. A collection of individuals and families c. A collection of people who share one or more characteristics d. Another name for demographic group ANS: C An aggregate is defined a collection of people who share one or more personal or environmental characteristics. Members of a community can be defined in terms of either geography (e.g., a county, a group of counties, or a state) or a special interest (e.g., children attending a particular school). These members make up a population. The term population may be used interchangeably with the term aggregate. A large group of persons, a collection of individuals and families, and another name for demograhpic group are not accurate definitions of the term aggregate. 10. A registered nurse was just employed as a public health nurse. Which question would be the most relevant for the nurse to ask? a. “Which groups are at the greatest risk for problems?” b. “Which patients should I see first as I begin my day?” c. “With which physicians will I be most closely collaborating?” d. “With which nursing assistants will I partner the most?” ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Foundations for Population Health in Community Public Health Nursing 5th Edition Stanhope Asking which groups are at greatest risk reflects a community-oriented perspective. The incorrect responses reflect a focus on individuals rather than a community-oriented perspective. 11. Making sure that essential community-oriented health services are available defines which of the core public health functions? a. Policy development b. Assessment c. Assurance d. Scientific knowledge-based care ANS: C Assurance includes making sure that essential community-oriented health services are available in the community. The definition does not fit the terms assessment, policy development. Scientific knowledge-based care is not a core function of public health. Assessment is systematic data collection on the population, monitoring the population’s health status, and making information available about the health of the community. Policy development refers to efforts to develop policies that support the health of the population, including using a scientific knowledge base to make policy decisions. 12. When talking to a women’s group at the senior citizens’ center, the nurse reminded them that the only way the center would be able to afford to provide transportation services for them would be for them to continue to write letters to their local city council representatives requesting funding for such a service. What was the nurse trying to accomplish through this action? a. Ensure that the women did not expect the nurse to solve their problem. b. Demonstrate that the nurse understood the women’s concerns and needs. c. Express empathy, support, and concern. d. Help the women engage in political action. ANS: D Public health nurses engage themselves and others in policy development and encourage and assist persons to communicate their needs to those with the power to take action. The nurse is demonstrating the role of advocate through this action, it goes beyond merely understanding the women’s concern, and instead mobilizes them to take action. This action does not demonstrate the nurse showing empathy rather the nurse is empowering these women.

Test Bank for Dental Public Health and Research 4th Edition by Nathe

Dental Public Health and Research, 4e (Nathe) Chapter 1   Dental Public Health: An Overview 1) When fulfilling the administrator role, a dental public health hygienist ________.
  1. A) Lobbies to change laws
  2. B) Conducts research
  3. C) Provides clinical care
  4. D) Educates and promotes dental health
  5. E) Develops and coordinates public health programs
Answer:  E 2) Dental public health is the science of providing oral health care and education to the public and emphasizes the science of ________.
  1. A) Dentistry
  2. B) Urgent health care
  3. C) Prosthodontics
  4. D) Dental hygiene
  5. E) None of the above
Answer:  D 3) Factors affecting dental care delivery include which of the following?
  1. A) The development of the dental hygiene profession
  2. B) Access issues
  3. C) The decrease in periodontal diseases
  4. D) Both A and B
  5. E) None of the above
Answer:  D 4) The patient's ability to sue a dental provider, if that provider fails to diagnose and treat periodontal disease, is defined as ________.
  1. A) Access issues
  2. B) Dental insurance premiums
  3. C) Socioeconomic status
  4. D) Copayment issues
  5. E) Malpractice
Answer:  E 5) Dental public health is a component of ________.
  1. A) Public Affairs
  2. B) Public Relations
  3. C) Public Health
  4. D) Community Affairs
  5. E) Both A and D
Answer:  C 6) Which of the following involves the monitoring of the health of communities?
  1. A) Assessment
  2. B) Policy Development
  3. C) Assurance
  4. D) Serving All Functions
  5. E) None of the above
Answer:  A 7) Which of the following is the process by which society makes decisions about problems?
  1. A) Assessment
  2. B) Policy Development
  3. C) Assurance
  4. D) Serving All Functions
  5. E) None of the above
Answer:  B 8) Which of the following involves making certain that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective services to read agreed-upon public health goals?
  1. A) Assessment
  2. B) Policy Development
  3. C) Assurance
  4. D) Serving All Functions
  5. E) None of the above
Answer:  C 9) Which of the following includes the research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems?
  1. A) Assessment
  2. B) Policy Development
  3. C) Assurance
  4. D) Serving All Functions
  5. E) None of the above
Answer:  D 10) Which of the following dictates services to ensure the promotion of health and prevention of disease and injury?
  1. A) Needs Assessment
  2. B) Public Health Goals
  3. C) Health Care Reform
  4. D) Public Health Demands
  5. E) Human Services Planning
Answer:  B

Test Bank for Legal and Ethical Aspects of Health Information Management 4th Edition by McWay

DESCRIPTION - CHAPTER SAMPLE

McWay_Chapter01_Exam MULTIPLE CHOICE
  1. Standards for human behavior are established through _____.
a. concepts c. moral principles
b. laws d. societal ideals
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1  
  1. Under civil law, the burden of proof is described as a _____.
a. determination to be met by the presiding judge at the trial
b. meeting of the minds where at least two persons or entities must reach an agreement
c. preponderance of the evidence, which is defined as “more likely than not”
d. requirement that something be proven beyond a reasonable doubt
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1
  1. Which statement is associated with civil law?
a. Defendants who do not pay court-assessed damages are imprisoned.
b. It is an area of law and justice that attempts to settle disputes among individuals.
c. Its body of law involves the state versus individuals and relies on statutory law.
d. Either plaintiff or defendant can be found partially right or wrong, but not both.
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. The plaintiff is always the state or federal government in _____ law.
a. contract c. criminal
b. Civil d. private
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1
  1. Which statement is associated with criminal law?
a. The defendant is always the state or federal government.
b. Only the plaintiff may appeal a decision.
c. Punishment may be a fine or imprisonment.
d. Federal statutes alone establish criminal law.
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1
  1. The burden of proof is “beyond a reasonable doubt” during a _____ trial?
a. civil c. contract
b. conflict d. criminal
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. Which statement is associated with a criminal trial?
a. Only the defendant may appeal a guilty verdict in a criminal case.
b. Each defendant is initially assigned a court-appointed lawyer.
c. State and federal statutes establish civil laws (or private laws).
d. The burden of proof is on the defendant named in the case.
ANS:  A                    PTS:   1
  1. Consensus ad idem is Latin for the element of a contract associated with _____.
a. obligation c. consideration
b. acceptance d. meeting of the minds
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. Consideration is an element of contract law that refers to _____.
a. business etiquette
b. exchange from one party in return for performing contractual obligations
c. one party’s agreement to a promise
d. an entity’s decision to enter into a contract
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. In Mordecai vs. Blue Cross/Blue Shield of Alabama, the court determined that _____.
a. a patient cannot sue their health insurance company for breach of contract because that is prohibited by statutory law
b. terms of an insurance policy cannot be altered after inception because the patient pays a monthly premium for insurance coverage and signing the contract protects the insurance company
c. the insurance company had the right to deny payment for major medical expenses regardless of whether procedures and services performed were medically necessary.
d. the insured had the right to proceed against the insurance company for breach of contract to determine whether it had correctly determined that patient care was not medically necessary
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution are called _____.
a. Judicial Declarations c. Executive Orders
b. The Bill of Rights d. Titles of Nobility
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. Which of the following is associated with the Bill of Rights?
a. protects the rights to freedom of speech and religion.
b. provides the right to vote for those age 18 and above.
c. allows unlimited rights to sue states in federal court.
d. includes equality of rights under the law regardless of gender.
ANS:  A                    PTS:   1
  1. Which constitutional amendment prohibits double jeopardy?
a. First c. Second
b. Fifth d. Sixth
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. Which is associated with the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution?
a. Accused person may not be compelled to testify against himself.
b. Guards against searches, arrests, and seizures of property without a specific warrant or a "probable cause."
c. Guarantees a speedy public trial for criminal offenses.
d. Forbids excessive bail or fines, and cruel and unusual punishment.
ANS:  A                    PTS:   1
  1. Laws passed at the local level are called _____.
a. bills c. precedence
b. ordinances d. statutes
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. From a statutory perspective, CFR is an abbreviation for _____.
a. Campaign Finance Reform c. Code of Federal Regulations
b. Case Fatality Rate d. Council of Foreign Relations
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1
  1. HIPAA is the abbreviation for the _____.
a. Healthcare Information and Payer Accessibility Act
b. Health Information Provider and Accessibility Act
c. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
d. Healthcare Insurance and Payer Accountability Act
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1
  1. Criminal law is subdivided into _____ categories.
a. felony and misdemeanor c. procedural and administrative
b. ordinal and substantive d. substantive and procedural
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. A felony is defined as a crime _____.
a. for which probation is always assigned
b. involving civil or private law
c. of grave or serious nature
d. that is punishable by a term of less than 1 year
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1
  1. Which subcategory of criminal law defines specific offenses?
a. misdemeanor c. statute
b. procedural d. substantive
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. Primary sources of public law include _____.
a. law of contracts or torts c. policies and procedures
b. law of obligations d. statutes and penal law
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. Thus, it _____.
a. defines principles for individuals, not the nation or state in which it is based
b. delineates procedures by which a court awards the defendant monetary damages
c. is considered the fundamental law of a nation or state
d. undergoes interpretation according to modern day statutes and regulations
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1
  1. Under stare decisis, _____.
a. U.S. Courts of Appeal are bound by trial court decisions of U.S. district courts in other jurisdictions
b. U.S. district courts are bound by decisions of both the U.S. Courts of Appeal and U.S. Supreme Court within the same geographic area
c. U.S. Supreme Court is bound by decisions of all U.S. courts of appeal within different jurisdictions
d. U.S. Supreme Court is obligated to follow precedent, regardless of decisions in Courts of Appeal or district courts
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. Which describes the doctrine of res judicata?
a. Appeals to a court decision are prohibited, and a plaintiff would be required to stand before the Supreme Court.
b. Final judgment of a competent court is conclusive upon the parties in any subsequent litigation involving the same cause of action.
c. Parties of a lawsuit have the option of bringing a subsequent action raising the same claim or demand.
d. Plaintiff can re-prosecute the defendant if a valid final judgment was administered by the court.
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. An electronic case filing system (ECFS) is an automated system that _____.
a. allows the general public to search pleadings and testimony
b. eliminates the need to charge a fee for the search
c. is rarely a component for case management
d. prohibits the processing and exchange of information
ANS:  A                    PTS:   1
  1. The government’s separation of powers include _____.
a. division of power that allows one branch to dominate another when deemed necessary
b. judicial, legislative and congressional branches headed by Congress
c. a provision that each branch may exercise powers involving other branches
d. a system of checks and balances that is referred to as the separation of powers
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. GINA _____.
a. addresses perceived areas of discrimination in employment and insurance
b. is the abbreviation for Genetic Insurance Nondiscrimination Act
c. prohibits the interaction of all three branches of government for enforcement
d. replaces the HIPAA statute regarding implementation of the privacy rule
ANS:  A                    PTS:   1
  1. The legislative branch of government _____.
a. enforces and administers laws (statutes)
b. includes the Senate and the House of Representatives
c. interprets laws through adjudication and resolution of disputes
d. promulgates rules and regulations within specialized subject matter
ANS:  B                    PTS:   1
  1. The chief executive branch of government issues executive orders that interprets _____.
a. and implements and/or gives administrative effect to provisions of the constitution or laws
b. individual rules or regulations, which were written by administrative agencies
c. laws (statutes) through the adjudication and resolution of disputes
d. relevant constitutional provisions, federal/state statutes, regulations, and court decisions
ANS:  A                    PTS:   1
  1. In deciding a dispute, the court or judicial branch _____.
a. applies laws that were enacted by a majority vote only
b. considers irrelevant statutes and unconstitutional provisions
c. does not have the authority to settle disputes
d. may apply the doctrines of stare decisis and res judicata
ANS:  D                    PTS:   1
  1. Quasi-legal requirements may involve which of the following?
a. morals c. licensure
b. federal regulations d. statutes
ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

Test bank Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition by Nies

Chapter 01: Health: A Community View

Nies: Community/Public Health Nursing, 7th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which best describes the primary reason that Americans are concerned about health care? a. Politicians are discussing how to improve health care. b. The media has provided mixed messages about the health care system. c. Our national health care costs keep increasing. d. The new health care system offers free services to Americans. ANS: C The primary reason for the focus on health care is the constantly increasing costs, which cannot be sustained. The costs of caring for the sick accounted for the majority of escalating health care dollars, which increased from 5.7% of the gross domestic product in 1965 to 17.8% in 2015. Politicians and the media both influence Americans’ perceptions about health care; however, they are not the primary reason why Americans are concerned. The new health care system will change the health care access and availability, but will not necessarily be offering any free services to Americans. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 2. A nurse has begun to lobby with politicians for changes to the health care system. Why is this involvement important? a. Nurses, as central characters in several popular TV series, are currently very visible in American media. b. Nurses are primarily responsible for managing the various units in our health care system. c. Nurses are the largest segment of health care providers. d. Nurses are the only group that is employed both inside and outside of hospitals. ANS: C As the largest segment of health care providers, nurses are informed about the current health care system and all the problems that result from people not seeking care until they are desperately ill. Nurses, as the American Nurses Association (ANA) emphasize, usually believe that health care is a right, not a privilege. Therefore, nurses, whose work is central to our current health care delivery system, can also be instrumental in working politically to create a health care delivery system that will meet health needs. While nurses are in several current TV series and are employed both inside and outside of hospitals, physicians and other health care providers are as well. Nurses are often managers, but managers often have other backgrounds, such as business administration. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 3. What conclusion can be drawn from examining where nurses are employed? a. There is a trend toward consolidation of health care into large central medical centers. b. There is an increased emphasis on community-based health care. c. There is an obvious need to decrease health care costs by cutting positions. d. Managed care organizations (MCOs) are employing nurses to improve customer NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M relations. ANS: B MCOs are employing nurses in many capacities. Although hospitals are closing and acute care is increasingly found in central medical centers, the same trend may be seen in an increase in neighborhood-based practice centers. While positions are cut in most industries, health care is recognized as an area where growth in employment is expected. However, nurses are increasingly employed in community settings as opposed to hospitals. This change reflects the move toward community-based care rather than hospital-based tertiary care. To help decrease the continued rise in health care costs, the increased emphasis is on disease prevention rather than high-cost treatment. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 4. Which ethical belief would be most helpful in the current health care crisis? a. Emphasis should be on individual and corporation freedom in the marketplace. b. Emphasis should be on individual autonomy and freedom of choice. c. Emphasis should be on social justice and collective responsibility. d. Emphasis should be on the effectiveness of technology in resolving problems. ANS: C Public health recognizes the necessity of collective action in keeping the environment safe and in egalitarian tradition and vision. An overinvestment in technology and seeking of cures within the market justice system has stifled the evolution of a health system to protect and preserve the health of the population. Although individual autonomy and freedom of choice are important, so is the recognition of collective responsibility in ensuring social justice, which entitles all people to basic necessities. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 5. What is the primary problem seen in Healthy People 2020’s emphasis on choosing healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as daily exercise or healthy food choices? a. Emphasis on other lifestyle choices, such as not smoking and minimal use of alcohol or drugs, is also needed. b. All of us must work together to make unhealthy behaviors socially unacceptable. c. It costs more to make healthy choices, such as buying and eating fresh fruits and vegetables as opposed to quick and cheap fast-food choices. d. Public policy emphasizes personal responsibility but ignores social and environmental changes needed for well-being. ANS: D Although all responses are accurate, the primary problem is the emphasis on personal choices in the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Emphasis on personal choices ignores the need for community responsibility and action that addresses environmental or cultural restraints to health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 6. What responsibility does the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics require of the nurse beyond giving excellent care to patients? a. Accept longer work schedules to ensure that professional care is always available NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M to clients. b. Recognize the need for experienced nurses to mentor new graduates to help increase and expand the number of professionals available. c. Support health legislation to improve accessibility and cost of health care. d. Volunteer to work overtime as needed to ensure maximum quality of care. ANS: C The ANA Code of Ethics promotes social reform by focusing on health policy and legislation to positively affect accessibility, quality, and cost of health care. The code does not directly address workplace issues, such as work schedules or need for overtime. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analyze (Analysis) 7. What is the community health nursing definition of health? a. Health is a person’s goal-directed purposeful process toward well-being or wholeness. b. Health is an individual’s physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. c. Health is the mutual adaptation between a person and his or her environment in meeting daily existence. d. Health is families and aggregates choosing actions to ensure safety and well-being. ANS: D The text stresses that health is not just the result of an individual’s choices, but choices and actions of individuals, families, groups, and communities that lead to better health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 8. How does community health nursing define community? a. A group of persons living within specific geographic boundaries b. A group of persons who share a common identity and environment c. A group of persons who work together to meet common goals d. A group of persons who resolve a community concern ANS: B Community health nurses work with both geopolitical groups (within specific geographic boundaries) and phenomenological groups (who have a common identity based on culture, history, or goals). A particular phenomenological group may or may not have been a planned group—that is, a group that came together to resolve a recognized common problem or to meet a common goal. However, of all the choices, a group of persons who share a common identity (phenomenological group) and environment (which implies a specific geographic setting) is the broadest and most complete definition. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 9. Which variable has a major influence on a community’s health? a. Behavior choices made by persons in the community b. Number of health care providers and hospitals in the community c. Quality of the public safety officers (police officers, firefighters, etc.) d. The number and credentials of public health officials in the community ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M Individual behavior choices are responsible for about 50% of health outcomes. Individual choices are affected through interaction with other individuals, and their mutual social and physical environments. The number of health care providers has not played a major role in the health outcomes in the community in comparison to individual health behaviors. The quality of public safety officers and number of public health officials have not been identified as major contributors to the determinants of health. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 10. What change could most effectively lead to a longer life span in Americans? a. Parenting and sexual behavior classes in all public school systems b. Legislation restricting alcohol and drug use c. Notably reducing speed limits on all state and federal highways, and changing the age limit for driving to 21 years of age d. The belief that smoking is shameful and disgusting, as well as expensive, becoming the social norm ANS: D Smoking is responsible for almost 20% of all deaths in the United States. Although smoking is an individual’s choice, all people are affected by social norms. Parenting and sexual behavior classes and legislative changes may influence health, but may not necessarily lead to a longer lifespan. Community health nurses should recognize that health is influenced by a web of factors, some that can be changed and some that cannot. Influencing social norms may better promote change among Americans. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 11. What is the health issue causing the most concern in the United States today? a. Diabetes epidemic b. Increase in cardiac disease c. Increase in obesity d. Rise in cancer rates ANS: C The widespread increase in incidence of overweight and obesity has led to calls for population-based measures to address this issue. The overarching problem of obesity has led to an increase in diabetes as well as cardiac disease. If this health issue was controlled, there should be in a decrease in the other health issues. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 12. What factors are most responsible for the increasing length of life of Americans over the past 100 years? a. Better nutrition and family planning options b. Education concerning the need to reduce salt and fat in the diet c. Improved medical care, including exciting new technologies d. More efficient cancer screenings and early intervention ANS: A NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M Average increased life span over the past 100 years can be largely attributed to higher standards of living, better nutrition, a healthier environment, and having fewer children. Public health efforts such as immunization and medical care have also contributed. DIF: Cognitive Level: Understand (Comprehension) 13. Why would a public health nurse want to know about morbidity and mortality statistics on the local, state, and national level? a. To be able to share current trends in health problems with the community b. To be able to observe the community’s statistics over time and compare the community with other communities c. To justify local budgets and the need for increased income from citizens d. To publicize current health issues and suggest appropriate actions to citizens ANS: B Although being informed and being able to educate the public is always preferred and nurses often do have to justify budgets, data are needed to compare the local community with itself over time and with other communities so that problems may be recognized and action taken to confront health issues. The first step is always to recognize problems as they develop. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 14. How do public health efforts differ from medical efforts in improving the health of our citizens? a. Medical care providers autonomously choose appropriate interventions, whereas public health care providers must engage in whatever actions legislation requires. b. Medical care providers are self-employed or agency employed, whereas public health care providers are employed by and paid through the government. c. Medical care providers focus only on individuals, whereas public health care providers focus only on aggregates. d. Medical care providers focus on disease diagnosis and management, whereas public health care providers focus on health promotion and disease prevention. ANS: D Medical care providers are restricted by insurance and government regulations. Providers may also be employed in government facilities, such as Veterans Administration facilities. However, medical care providers primarily focus on diagnosis and treatment of disease, whereas public health care providers try to promote health and prevent disease. Although medical care providers primarily focus on individuals and public health care providers primarily focus on aggregates, their practice is not limited to only individuals or only aggregates. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application) 15. Which primary prevention would the school nurse choose to address the school’s number of unwed pregnancies? a. Create a class on parenting for both the moms-to-be and the dads-to-be. b. Convince the school board to allow sex education classes to include birth control measures. c. Employ the moms-to-be as 1-hour-a-day employees in the school daycare center for children born to school students. NURSINGTB.COM Community Public Health Nursing 7th Edition Nies Test BankNU RS IN GT B.CO M d. Establish a class where all the unwed moms-to-be can learn infant care. ANS: B Primary prevention relates to activities directed at preventing a problem before it occurs by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals. Primary prevention consists of two elements: general health promotion and specific protection. Health promotion efforts enhance resiliency and protective factors and target essentially well populations. Specific protection efforts reduce or eliminate risk factors. Although all choices would be appropriate actions in a school, only education regarding sexuality and birth control would help prevent future pregnancies. DIF: Cognitive Level: Apply (Application)  

Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis 8th Edition by Ragsdale

Chapter 1 Introduction to Modeling & Problem Solving  
  1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Decision Analysis - Identifying and evaluating the different possible courses of action that might be chosen to address a decision problem.
 
  1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Computer Model - A set of mathematical relationships and logical assumptions implemented in a computer as a representation of some real-world object or phenomenon.
 
  1. A spreadsheet model is a type (or special case) of a computer model where a spreadsheet is used to implement the model.
 
  1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Business Analytics - A field of study that uses computers, statistics and mathematics to solve business problems.
 
  1. Many of the tools and techniques from the field of business analytics can be implemented and used in spreadsheets.
 
  1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Spreadsheets are sometimes used to store lists of data; such as the grades of students in a class, or names addresses and phone numbers of friends and family. These types of "data base" applications of spreadsheets do not fall into the area of business analytics unless they data is being “mined” with a specific objective in mind.
 
  1. Spreadsheets facilitate the decision-making process by making it easier to play out various what-if scenarios.
 
  1. A modeling approach to decision making is beneficial in that the decision maker can analyze the probable impact of numerous alternative before selecting an alternative for implementation.
 
  1. Dependent Variable - A bottom-line performance measure of interest to the decision maker that is influenced by other variables in the model; denoted by the symbol Y in the expression Y=(X1, X2, ... X3).
 
  1. Solution Manual for Spreadsheet Modeling and Decision Analysis  Independent Variable - A variable that influences (or plays a role in determining) the value of some bottom-line performance measure (dependent variable); denoted by the symbols Xiin the expression Y=(X1, X2, ... X3).
 
  1. Yes, a model can have more than one dependent variable. In some decision problems a manager might be interested in evaluating various alternatives on the basis of profit, probable number of injuries, resulting amount of toxic waste produced, etc.  Each of the variables represents a bottom-line performance measure that the manager might be interested in that should be included in the model.
 
  1. Yes. See the answer to the previous question.
 
  1. The solution to prescriptive models tell managers what actions to take while descriptive models simply describe the operation of a system. In descriptive models, the values to be assumed by one or more independent variables are uncertain and not under the decision maker's control.
 
  1. The solution to prescriptive models tell managers what actions to take while predictive models provide forecasts of what will happen in the future. In predictive models, the functional form () describing the nature of the relationship between the dependent and independent variable is ill-defined or not precisely known.
 
  1. Descriptive models have a well-defined functional form, but the values of one or more of the independent variables are unknown or uncertain. In predictive models, the values of the independent variables are known or under the decision maker's control, but the functional form () describing the nature of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables is ill-defined or not precisely known.
 
  1. Description - To report on or summarize the features, characteristics or behavior of some object or phenomenon.
Prediction - An estimate or forecast of what will occur in the future. Prescription - Directions, orders, or advise on how to solve a problem.  
  1. Consider the problem of determining how to travel from your home to school or work. There are probably many different routes that could be taken that might influence the total distance (or total length of time) required for the trip.  Most people would be interested in determining the route that requires the least distance (or least amount of time).  In this sort of problem (also known as a shortest path problem) the different routes that can be chosen represent independent variables and the dependent variable would be the total distance (or total travel time).
 
  1. The spreadsheet in Figure 1.2 most closely resembles a prescriptive model because the function form () relating the dependent and independent variables is well-defined and the values of the independent variables are known, or are under the decision maker's control.
 
  1. “Probortunity” is the combination of the words problem and opportunity and denotes the fact that every problem can also be viewed as an opportunity.
 
  1. The steps in the problem solving process are:
  1) Identify the problem 2) Formulate and implement a model 3) Analyze the model 4) Test the result of the model 5) Implement the solution
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