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Test bank for Maternal Child Nursing Care 6th Edition Perry

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Test Bank for Maternal Child Nursing Care 6th Edition Perry

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Chapter 01: 21st Century Maternity Nursing
Perry: Maternal Child Nursing Care, 6th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. When providing care for a pregnant woman, the nurse should be aware that one of the most
frequently reported maternal medical risk factors is:
a. diabetes mellitus.
b. mitral valve prolapse (MVP).
c. chronic hypertension.
d. anemia.
ANS: A
The most frequently reported maternal medical risk factors are diabetes and hypertension
associated with pregnancy. Both of these conditions are associated with maternal obesity.
There are no studies that indicate MVP is among the most frequently reported maternal risk
factors. Hypertension associated with pregnancy, not chronic hypertension, is one of the most
frequently reported maternal medical risk factors. Although anemia is a concern in pregnancy,
it is not one of the most frequently reported maternal medical risk factors in pregnancy.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity
2. To ensure optimal outcomes for the patient, the contemporary maternity nurse must
incorporate both teamwork and communication with clinicians into her care delivery. The
SBAR technique of communication is an easy-to-remember mechanism for communication.
Which of the following correctly defines this acronym?
a. Situation, baseline assessment, response
b. Situation, background, assessment, recommendation
c. Subjective background, assessment, recommendation
d. Situation, background, anticipated recommendation
ANS: B
The situation, background, assessment, recommendation (SBAR) technique provides a
specific framework for communication among health care providers. Failure to communicate
is one of the major reasons for errors in health care. The SBAR technique has the potential to
serve as a means to reduce errors.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension
OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment, Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
3. The role of the professional nurse caring for childbearing families has evolved to emphasize:
a. providing care to patients directly at the bedside.
b. primarily hospital care of maternity patients.
c. practice using an evidence-based approach.
d. planning patient care to cover longer hospital stays.
ANS: C
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Professional nurses are part of the team of health care providers who collaboratively care for
patients throughout the childbearing cycle. Providing care to patients directly at the bedside is
one of the nurse’s tasks; however, it does not encompass the concept of the evolved
professional nurse. Throughout the prenatal period, nurses care for women in clinics and
physician’s offices and teach classes to help families prepare for childbirth. Nurses also care
for childbearing families in birthing centers and in the home. Nurses have been critically
important in developing strategies to improve the well-being of women and their infants and
have led the efforts to implement clinical practice guidelines using an evidence-based
approach. Maternity patients have experienced a decreased, rather than an increased, length of
stay over the past two decades.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
4. A 23-year-old African-American woman is pregnant with her first child. Based on the
statistics for infant mortality, which plan is most important for the nurse to implement?
a. Perform a nutrition assessment.
b. Refer the woman to a social worker.
c. Advise the woman to see an obstetrician, not a midwife.
d. Explain to the woman the importance of keeping her prenatal care appointments.
ANS: D
Consistent prenatal care is the best method of preventing or controlling risk factors associated
with infant mortality. Nutritional status is an important modifiable risk factor, but a nutrition
assessment is not the most important action a nurse should take in this situation. The patient
may need assistance from a social worker at some time during her pregnancy, but a referral to
a social worker is not the most important aspect the nurse should address at this time. If the
woman has identifiable high risk problems, her health care may need to be provided by a
physician. However, it cannot be assumed that all African-American women have high risk
issues. In addition, advising the woman to see an obstetrician is not the most important aspect
on which the nurse should focus at this time, and it is not appropriate for a nurse to advise or
manage the type of care a patient is to receive.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance
5. During a prenatal intake interview, the nurse is in the process of obtaining an initial
assessment of a 21-year-old Hispanic patient with limited English proficiency. It is important
for the nurse to:
a. use maternity jargon in order for the patient to become familiar with these terms.
b. speak quickly and efficiently to expedite the visit.
c. provide the patient with handouts.
d. assess whether the patient understands the discussion.
ANS: D
Nurses contribute to health literacy by using simple, common words; avoiding jargon; and
evaluating whether the patient understands the discussion. Speaking slowly and clearly and
focusing on what is important increase understanding. Most patient education materials are
written at too high a level for the average adult and may not be useful for a patient with
limited English proficiency.
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PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance
6. When managing health care for pregnant women at a prenatal clinic, the nurse should
recognize that the most significant barrier to access to care is the pregnant woman’s:
a. age.
b. minority status.
c. educational level.
d. inability to pay.
ANS: D
The most significant barrier to health care access is the inability to pay for services; this is
compounded by the fact that many physicians refuse to care for women who cannot pay.
Although adolescent pregnant patients statistically receive less prenatal care, age is not the
most significant barrier. Significant disparities in morbidity and mortality rates exist for
minority women; however, minority status is not the most significant barrier to access of care.
Disparities in educational level are associated with morbidity and mortality rates; however,
educational level is not the most significant barrier to access of care.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
7. When the nurse is unsure about how to perform a patient care procedure, the best action
would be to:
a. ask another nurse.
b. discuss the procedure with the patient’s physician.
c. look up the procedure in a nursing textbook.
d. consult the agency’s procedure manual and follow the guidelines for the
procedure.
ANS: D
It is always best to follow the agency’s policies and procedures manual when seeking
information on correct patient procedures. These policies should reflect the current standards
of care and state guidelines. Each nurse is responsible for her own practice. Relying on
another nurse may not always be safe practice. Each nurse is obligated to follow the standards
of care for safe patient care delivery. Physicians are responsible for their own patient care
activity. Nurses may follow safe orders from physicians, but they are also responsible for the
activities that they as nurses are to carry out. Information provided in a nursing textbook is
basic information for general knowledge. Furthermore, the information in a textbook may not
reflect the current standard of care or individual state or hospital policies.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity
8. From the nurse’s perspective, what measure should be the focus of the health care system to
reduce the rate of infant mortality further?
a. Implementing programs to ensure women’s early participation in ongoing prenatal
care.
b. Increasing the length of stay in a hospital after vaginal birth from 2 to 3 days.
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c. Expanding the number of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs).
d. Mandating that all pregnant women receive care from an obstetrician.
ANS: A
Early prenatal care allows for early diagnosis and appropriate interventions to reduce the rate
of infant mortality. An increased length of stay has been shown to foster improved self-care
and parental education. However, it does not prevent the incidence of leading causes of infant
mortality rates, such as low birth weight. Early prevention and diagnosis reduce the rate of
infant mortality. NICUs offer care to high risk infants after they are born. Expanding the
number of NICUs would offer better access for high risk care, but this factor is not the
primary focus for further reduction of infant mortality rates. A mandate that all pregnant
women receive obstetric care would be nearly impossible to enforce. Furthermore, certified
nurse-midwives (CNMs) have demonstrated reliable, safe care for pregnant women.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance
9. Alternative and complementary therapies:
a. replace conventional Western modalities of treatment.
b. are used by only a small number of American adults.
c. recognize the value of patients’ input into their health care.
d. focus primarily on the disease an individual is experiencing.
ANS: C
Many popular alternative healing modalities offer human-centered care based on philosophies
that recognize the value of the patient’s input and honor the individual’s beliefs, values, and
desires. Alternative and complementary therapies are part of an integrative approach to health
care. An increasing number of American adults are seeking alternative and complementary
health care options. Alternative healing modalities offer a holistic approach to health, focusing
on the whole person, not just the disease.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Physiologic Integrity
10. A 38-year-old Hispanic woman delivered a 9-pound, 6-ounce girl vaginally after being in
labor for 43 hours. The baby died 3 days later from sepsis. On what grounds would the
woman potentially have a legitimate legal case for negligence?
a. She is Hispanic.
b. She delivered a girl.
c. The standards of care were not met.
d. She refused fetal monitoring.
ANS: C
Not meeting the standards of care is a legitimate factor for a case of negligence. The patient’s
race is not a factor for a case of negligence. The infant’s gender is not a factor for a case of
negligence. Although fetal monitoring is the standard of care, the patient has the right to
refuse treatment. This refusal is not a case for negligence; however, informed consent should
be properly obtained, and the patient should sign an against medical advice form for refusal of
any treatment that is within the standard of care.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning
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MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance
11. A newly graduated nurse is attempting to understand the reason for increasing health care
spending in the United States. Her research finds that these costs are much higher compared
with other developed countries as a result of:
a. a higher rate of obesity among pregnant women.
b. limited access to technology.
c. increased usage of health care services along with lower prices.
d. homogeneity of the population.
ANS: A
Health care is one of the fastest growing sectors of the U.S. economy. Currently, 17.5% of the
gross domestic product is spent on health care. Higher spending in the United States compared
with 12 other industrialized countries is related to higher prices and readily accessible
technology along with greater obesity rates among women. More than one third of women in
the United States are obese. Of the U.S. population, 16% is uninsured and has limited access
to health care. Maternal morbidity and mortality are directly related to racial disparities.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
12. The term used to describe legal and professional responsibility for practice for maternity
nurses is:
a. collegiality.
b. ethics.
c. evaluation.
d. accountability.
ANS: D
Accountability refers to legal and professional responsibility for practice. Collegiality refers to
a working relationship with one’s colleagues. Ethics refers to a code to guide practice.
Evaluation refers to examination of the effectiveness of interventions in relation to expected
outcomes.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding OBJ: Nursing Process: Evaluation
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance
13. Through the use of social media technology, nurses can link with other nurses who may share
similar interests, insights about practice, and advocate for patients. The most concerning
pitfall for nurses using this technology is:
a. violation of patient privacy and confidentiality.
b. institutions and colleagues may be cast in an unfavorable light.
c. unintended negative consequences for using social media.
d. lack of institutional policy governing online contact.
ANS: A
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The most significant pitfall for nurses using this technology is the violation of patient privacy
and confidentiality. Furthermore, institutions and colleagues can be cast in unfavorable lights
with negative consequences for those posting information. Nursing students have been
expelled from school and nurses have been fired or reprimanded by their Board of Nursing for
injudicious posts. The American Nurses Association has published six principles for social
networking and nurses. All institutions should have policies guiding the use of social media,
and nurses should be familiar with these guidelines.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
14. An important development that affects maternity nursing is integrative health care, which:
a. seeks to provide the same health care for all racial and ethnic groups.
b. blends complementary and alternative therapies with conventional Western
treatment.
c. focuses on the disease or condition rather than the background of the patient.
d. has been mandated by Congress.
ANS: B
Integrative health care tries to mix the old with the new at the discretion of the patient and
health care providers. Integrative health care is a blending of new and traditional practices.
Integrative health care focuses on the whole person, not just the disease or condition. U.S. law
supports complementary and alternative therapies but does not mandate them.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance
15. The nurse caring for a pregnant patient should be aware that the U.S. birth rate shows which
trend?
a. Births to unmarried women are more likely to have less favorable outcomes.
b. Birth rates for women 40 to 44 years old are beginning to decline.
c. Cigarette smoking among pregnant women continues to increase.
d. The rates of maternal death owing to racial disparity are elevated in the United
States.
ANS: A
Low-birth-weight infants and preterm birth are more likely because of the large number of
teenagers in the unmarried group. Birth rates for women in their early 40s continue to
increase. Fewer pregnant women smoke. In the United States, there is significant racial
disparity in the rates of maternal death.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension
OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
16. Maternity nursing care that is based on knowledge gained through research and clinical
trials is:
a. derived from the Nursing Intervention Classification.
b. known as evidence-based practice.
c. at odds with the Cochrane School of traditional nursing.
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d. an outgrowth of telemedicine.
ANS: B
Evidence-based practice is based on knowledge gained from research and clinical trials. The
Nursing Intervention Classification is a method of standardizing language and categorizing
care. Dr. Cochrane systematically reviewed research trials and is part of the evidence-based
practice movement. Telemedicine uses communication technologies to support health care.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension
OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity
17. The level of practice a reasonably prudent nurse provides is called:
a. the standard of care.
b. risk management.
c. a sentinel event.
d. failure to rescue.
ANS: A
Guidelines for standards of care are published by various professional nursing organizations.
Risk management identifies risks and establishes preventive practices, but it does not define
the standard of care. Sentinel events are unexpected negative occurrences. They do not
establish the standard of care. Failure to rescue is an evaluative process for nursing, but it does
not define the standard of care.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension OBJ: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
18. While obtaining a detailed history from a woman who has recently emigrated from Somalia,
the nurse realizes that the patient has undergone female genital mutilation (FGM). The nurse’s
best response to this patient is:
a. “this is a very abnormal practice and rarely seen in the United States.”
b. “do you know who performed this so that it can be reported to the authorities?”
c. “we will be able to restore your circumcision fully after delivery.”
d. “the extent of your circumcision will affect the potential for complications.”
ANS: D
“The extent of your circumcision will affect the potential for complications” is the most
appropriate response. The patient may experience pain, bleeding, scarring, or infection and
may require surgery before childbirth. With the growing number of immigrants from countries
where FGM is practiced, nurses will increasingly encounter women who have undergone the
procedure. Although this practice is not prevalent in the United States, it is very common in
many African and Middle Eastern countries for religious reasons. Responding with, “This is a
very abnormal practice and rarely seen in the United States” is culturally insensitive. The
infibulation may have occurred during infancy or childhood. The patient will have little to no
recollection of the event. She would have considered this to be a normal milestone during her
growth and development. The International Council of Nurses has spoken out against this
procedure as harmful to a woman’s health.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
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19. To ensure patient safety, the practicing nurse must have knowledge of the current Joint
Commission’s “Do Not Use” list of abbreviations. Which of the following is acceptable for
use?
a. q.o.d. or Q.O.D.
b. MSO4 or MgSO4
c. International Unit
d. Lack of a leading zero
ANS: C
The abbreviations “i.u.” and “I.U.” are no longer acceptable because they could be misread as
“I.V.” or the number “10.” The abbreviation “q.o.d. or Q.O.D.” should be written out as
“every other day.” The period after the “Q” could be mistaken for an “I”; the “o” could also
be mistaken for an “i.” With MSO4 or MgSO4, it is too easy to confuse one medication for
another. These medications are used for very different purposes and could put a patient at risk
for an adverse outcome. They should be written as morphine sulfate and magnesium sulfate.
The decimal point should never be missed before a number to avoid confusion (i.e., 0.4 rather
than .4).
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: Nursing Process: Assessment MSC: Client Needs: Psychosocial Integrity
20. Healthy People 2020 has established national health priorities that focus on a number of
maternal-child health indicators. Nurses are assuming greater roles in assessing family health
and providing care across the perinatal continuum. Therefore, it is important for the nurse to
be aware that significant progress has been made in:
a. the reduction of fetal deaths and use of prenatal care.
b. low birth weight and preterm birth.
c. elimination of health disparities based on race.
d. infant mortality and the prevention of birth defects.
ANS: A
Trends in maternal child health indicate that progress has been made in relation to reduced
infant and fetal deaths and increased prenatal care. Notable gaps remain in the rates of low
birth weight and preterm births. According to the March of Dimes, persistent disparities still
exist between African-Americans and non-Hispanic Caucasians. Many of these negative
outcomes are preventable through access to prenatal care and the use of preventive health
practices. This demonstrates the need for comprehensive community-based care for all
mothers, infants, and families.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
MULTIPLE RESPONSE
1. Which interventions would help alleviate the problems associated with access to health care
for maternity patients? (Select all that apply.)
a. Provide transportation to prenatal visits.
b. Provide child care so that a pregnant woman may keep prenatal visits.
c. Mandate that physicians make house calls.
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d. Provide low-cost or no-cost health care insurance.
e. Provide job training.
ANS: A, B, D
Lack of transportation to visits, lack of child care, and lack of affordable health insurance are
prohibitive factors associated with lack of prenatal care. House calls are not a cost-effective
approach to health care. Although job training may result in employment and income, the
likelihood of significant changes during the time frame of the pregnancy is remote.
PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Implementation OBJ: Nursing Process: Planning
MSC: Client Needs: Health Promotion and Maintenance
MATCHING
Medical errors are a leading cause of death in the United States. The National Quality Forum
has recommended numerous safe practices that nursing can promote to reduce errors. Match
each safe practice with the correct statement.
a. Ask the patient to “teach back.”
b. Comply with CDC guidelines.
c. Ensure that information is documented in a timely manner.
d. Promote interventions that will reduce patient risk.
e. Reduce exposure to radiation.
1. Hand hygiene
2. Informed consent
3. Culture measurement, feedback, and intervention
4. Pediatric imaging
5. Patient care information
1. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
NOT: The National Quality Forum updated its publication Safe Practices for Better Healthcare in
2010, outlining 24 safe practices that should be used in all health care settings to reduce the risk of
harm from the environment of care, processes, and systems. These are only a few of the recommended
practices; however, nurses should be familiar with these guidelines.
2. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
NOT: The National Quality Forum updated its publication Safe Practices for Better Healthcare in
2010, outlining 24 safe practices that should be used in all health care settings to reduce the risk of
harm from the environment of care, processes, and systems. These are only a few of the recommended
practices; however, nurses should be familiar with these guidelines.
3. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
NOT: The National Quality Forum updated its publication Safe Practices for Better Healthcare in
2010, outlining 24 safe practices that should be used in all health care settings to reduce the risk of
harm from the environment of care, processes, and systems. These are only a few of the recommended
practices; however, nurses should be familiar with these guidelines.
4. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
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OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
NOT: The National Quality Forum updated its publication Safe Practices for Better Healthcare in
2010, outlining 24 safe practices that should be used in all health care settings to reduce the risk of
harm from the environment of care, processes, and systems. These are only a few of the recommended
practices; however, nurses should be familiar with these guidelines.
5. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application
OBJ: Nursing Process: Implementation
MSC: Client Needs: Safe and Effective Care Environment
NOT: The National Quality Forum updated its publication Safe Practices for Better Healthcare in
2010, outlining 24 safe practices that should be used in all health care settings to reduce the risk of
harm from the environment of care, processes, and systems. These are only a few of the recommended
practices; however, nurses should be familiar with these guidelines.
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