TEST BANK Introduction To Maternity And Pediatric Nursing 8th Edition Chapter 01: The Past, Present, and Future MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. A patient chooses to have the certified nurse-midwife (CNM) provide care during her pregnancy. What does the CNMs scope of practice include? a. Practice independent from medical supervision b. Comprehensive prenatal care c. Attendance at all deliveries d. Cesarean sections ANS: BThe CNM provides comprehensive prenatal and postnatal care, attends uncomplicated deliveries, and ensures that a backup physician is available in case of unforeseen problems. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 6 OBJ: 12 TOP: Advance Practice Nursing Roles KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease 2. Which medical pioneer discovered the relationship between the incidence of puerperal fever and unwashed hands? a. Karl Cred b. Ignaz Semmelweis c. Louis Pasteur d. Joseph Lister ANS: B Ignaz Semmelweis deduced that puerperal fever was septic, contagious, and transmitted by the unwashed hands of physicians and medical students. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 2 OBJ: 1 TOP: The Past KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: Safe, Effective Care Environment: Safety and Infection Control 3. A pregnant woman who has recently immigrated to the United States comments to the nurse, I am afraid of childbirth. It is so dangerous. I am afraid I will die. What is the best nursing response reflecting cultural sensitivity? a. Maternal mortality in the United States is extremely low. b. Anesthesia is available to relieve pain during labor and childbirth. c. Tell me why you are afraid of childbirth. d. Your condition will be monitored during labor and delivery. ANS: C Asking the patient about her concerns helps promote understanding and individualizes patient care. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 7-8 OBJ: 8 TOP: Cross-Cultural Care KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Psychosocial Integrity: Psychological Adaptation 4. An urban area has been reported to have a high perinatal mortality rate. What information does this provide? a. Maternal and infant deaths per 100,000 live births per year b. Deaths of fetuses weighing more than 500 g per 10,000 births per year c. Deaths of infants up to 1 year of age per 1000 live births per year d. Fetal and neonatal deaths per 1000 live births per year ANS: D The perinatal mortality rate includes fetal and neonatal deaths per 1000 live births per year. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 12, Box 1-6 OBJ: 9 TOP: The Present-Child Care KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe, Effective Care Environment: Coordinated Care 5. What is the focus of current maternity practice? a. Hospital births for the majority of women b. The traditional family unit c. Separation of labor rooms from delivery rooms d. A quality family experience for each patient ANS: D Current maternity practice focuses on a high-quality family experience for all families, traditional or otherwise. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 6 OBJ: 7 TOP: The Present-Maternity Care KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance 6. Who advocated the establishment of the Childrens Bureau? a. Lillian Wald b. Florence Nightingale c. Florence Kelly d. Clara Barton ANS: A Lillian Wald is credited with suggesting the establishment of a federal Childrens Bureau. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 4 OBJ: 1 | 2 TOP: The Past KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development 7. What was the result of research done in the 1930s by the Childrens Bureau? a. Children with heart problems are now cared for by pediatric cardiologists. b. The Child Abuse and Prevention Act was passed. c. Hot lunch programs were established in many schools. d. Childrens asylums were founded. ANS: C School hot lunch programs were developed as a result of research by the Childrens Bureau on the effects of economic depression on children. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 4 OBJ: 2 | 3 TOP: The Past KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Coordinated Care 8. What government program was implemented to increase the educational exposure of preschool children? a. WIC b. Title XIX of Medicaid c. The Childrens Charter d. Head Start ANS: D Head Start programs were established to increase educational exposure of preschool children. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 3 OBJ: 5 TOP: Government Influences in Maternity and Pediatric Care KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Growth and Development 9. What guidelines define multidisciplinary patient care in terms of expected outcome and timeframe from different areas of care provision? a. Clinical pathways b. Nursing outcome criteria c. Standards of care d. Nursing care plan ANS: A Clinical pathways, also known as critical pathways or care maps, are collaborative guidelines that define patient care across disciplines. Expected progress within a specified timeline is identified. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 12 OBJ: 14 TOP: Health Care Delivery Systems KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: Safe, Effective Care Environment: Coordinated Care 10. A nursing student has reviewed a hospitalized pediatric patient chart, interviewed her mother, and collected admission data. What is the next step the student will take to develop a nursing care plan for this child? a. Identify measurable outcomes with a timeline. b. Choose specific nursing interventions for the child. c. Determine appropriate nursing diagnoses. d. State nursing actions related to the childs medical diagnosis. ANS: C The nurse uses assessment data to select appropriate nursing diagnoses from the NANDAI list. Outcomes and interventions are then developed to address the relevant nursing diagnoses. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Page 11 OBJ: 13 TOP: Nursing Process KEY: Nursing Process Step: Nursing Diagnosis MSC: NCLEX: Safe, Effective Care Environment: Coordinated Care 11. A nursing student on an obstetric rotation question the floor nurse about the definition of the LVN/LPN scope of practice. What resource can the nurse suggest to the student? a. American Nurses Association b. States board of nursingc. Joint Commission d. Association of Womens Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses ANS: B The scope of practice of the LVN/LPN is published by the states board of nursing. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Page 3, Legal and Ethical Considerations OBJ: 18 TOP: Critical Thinking KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe, Effective Care Environment: Coordinated Care 12. What was recommended by Karl Cred in 1884? a. All women should be delivered in a hospital setting. b. Chemical means should be used to combat infection. c. Podalic version should be done on all fetuses. d. Silver nitrate should be placed in the eyes of newborns. ANS: D In 1884 Karl Cred recommended the use of 2% silver nitrate in the eyes of newborns to reduce the incidence of blindness. DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Page 2 OBJ: 1 TOP: Use of Silver Nitrate KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance: Prevention and Early Detection of Disease
Old’s Maternal-Newborn Nursing and Women’s Health, 11e (Davidson/London/Ladewig)
Chapter 1 Contemporary Maternal-Newborn Nursing
- The nurse is speaking to students about changes in maternal-newborn care. One change is that self-care has gained wide acceptance with clients and the healthcare community due to research findings that suggest that it has which effect?
- Shortens newborn length of stay
- Decreases use of home health agencies
- Decreases healthcare costs
- Decreases the number of emergency department visits
Page Ref: 3 Cognitive Level:Understanding Client Need/Sub:Health Promotion and Maintenance: Self-Care Standards: QSEN Competencies: Ⅰ.A.2. Describe strategies to empower patients or families in all aspects of the healthcare process. | AACN Essentials Competencies: Ⅸ.7. Provide appropriate patient teaching that reflects developmental stage, age, culture, spirituality, patient preferences, and health literacy considerations to foster patient engagement in their care. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Health care economic policy; reimbursement structures; accreditation standards; staffing models and productivity; supply chain models | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning. Learning Outcome:1 Discuss the impact of the self-care movement on contemporary childbirth. MNL LO:Recognize contemporary issues related to care of the childbearing family.
- Length of stay is often determined by third-party payer (insurance company) policies as well as the physiologic stability of the mother and newborn. Home healthcare agencies often are involved in client care to decrease hospital stay time.
- Home healthcare agencies often are involved in client care to decrease hospital stay time.
- Research indicates that self-care significantly decreases healthcare costs.
- Acute emergencies are addressed by emergency departments, and are not delayed by those practicing self-care.
- Care delivered by nurse-midwives can be safe and effective and can represent a positive response to the healthcare provider shortage. Nurse-midwives tend to use less technology, which often results in which of the following?
- There is less trauma to the mother.
- More childbirth education classes are available.
- They are instrumental in providing change in the birth environment at work.
- They advocate for more home healthcare agencies.
Page Ref: 3 Cognitive Level:Understanding Client Need/Sub:Health Promotion and Maintenance: Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Standards: QSEN Competencies: Ⅲ.A.6. Describe how the strength and relevance of available evidence influences the choice of interventions in provision of patient-centered care. | AACN Essentials Competencies: Ⅸ. 5. Deliver compassionate, patient-centered, evidence-based care that respects patient and family preferences. | NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Read and interpret data; apply health promotion/disease prevention strategies; apply health policy; conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Planning. Learning Outcome:2 Compare the nursing roles available to the maternal-newborn nurse. MNL LO:Recognize contemporary issues related to care of the childbearing family.
- Nurse-midwife models of care can be one way to ensure that mothers receive excellent prenatal and intrapartum care.
- It is appropriate for nurse-midwives, in conjunction with doctors and hospitals, to provide childbirth classes for expectant families.
- By working with other staff members and doctors, the nurse-midwife is able to implement changes as needed within the birthing unit.
- Clients are increasingly going home sooner, so there needs to be more follow-up in the home.
- The nurse is telling a new client how advanced technology has permitted the physician to do which of the following?
- Treat the fetus and monitor fetal development.
- Deliver at home with a nurse-midwife and doula.
- Have the father act as the coach and cut the umbilical cord.
- Breastfeed a new baby on the delivery table.
Page Ref: 2—3 Cognitive Level:Understanding Client Need/Sub:Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care Standards:QSEN Competencies: Ⅰ.B.10. Engage patients or designated surrogates in active partnerships that promote health, safety and well-being, and self-care management. | AACN Essentials Competencies: Ⅸ.5. Deliver compassionate, patient-centered, evidence-based care that respects patient and family preferences. | NLN Competencies: Teamwork: Scope of practice, roles, and responsibilities of health care team members, including overlaps. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation. Learning Outcome:6 Evaluate the potential impact of some of the special situations in contemporary maternity care. MNL LO:Recognize contemporary issues related to care of the childbearing family.
- The fetus is increasingly viewed as a patient separate from the mother, although treatment of the fetus necessarily involves the mother.
- A nurse-midwife and a doula are not examples of technological care.
- Fathers being present during labor and coaching their partners represents nontechnological care during childbirth.
- Breastfeeding is not an example of technology impacting care.
- A nurse is examining different nursing roles. Which example best illustrates an advanced practice nursing role?
- A registered nurse who is the manager of a large obstetrical unit
- A registered nurse who is the circulating nurse during surgical deliveries (cesarean sections)
- A clinical nurse specialist working as a staff nurse on a mother-baby unit
- A clinical nurse specialist with whom other nurses consult for her expertise in caring for high-risk infants
Page Ref: 5 Cognitive Level:Understanding Client Need/Sub:Safe and Effective Care Environment: Management of Care Standards:QSEN Competencies: Ⅱ.A.2. Describe scopes of practice and roles of healthcare team members. | AACN Essentials Competencies: Ⅵ. 6. Compare/contrast the roles and perspectives of the nursing profession with other care professionals on the healthcare team (i.e. scope of discipline, education, and licensure requirements). | NLN Competencies: Teamwork: Scope of practice, roles, and responsibilities of health care team members, including overlaps. | Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment. Learning Outcome:2 Compare the nursing roles available to the maternal-newborn nurse. MNL LO:Recognize contemporary issues related to care of the childbearing family.
- A registered nurse who is the manager of a large obstetrical unit is a professional nurse who has graduated from an accredited program in nursing and completed the licensure examination.
- A registered nurse who is a circulating nurse at surgical deliveries (cesarean sections) is a professional nurse who has graduated from an accredited program in nursing and completed the licensure examination.
- A clinical nurse specialist working as a staff nurse on a mother-baby unit might have the qualifications for an advanced practice nursing staff member but is not working in that capacity.
- A clinical nurse specialist with whom other nurses consult for expertise in caring for high-risk infants is working in an advanced practice nursing role. This nurse has specialized knowledge and competence in a specific clinical area, and is master’s prepared.
Test Bank Focus on Nursing Pharmacology 8th Edition Test Bank - Focus on Nursing Pharmacology (8th Edition by Karch) Table of Contents Chapter 01 - Introduction to Drugs Chapter 02 - Drugs and the Body Chapter 03 - Toxic Effects of Drugs Chapter 04 - The Nursing Process in Drug Therapy and Patient Safety Chapter 05 - Dosage Calculations Chapter 06 - Challenges to Effective Drug Therapy Chapter 07 - Introduction to Cell Physiology Chapter 08 - Antiinfective Agents Chapter 09 - Antibiotics Chapter 10 - Antiviral Agents Chapter 11 - Antifungal Agents Chapter 12 - Antiprotozoal Agents Chapter 13 - Anthelmintic Agents Chapter 14 - Antineoplastic Agents Chapter 15 - Introduction to the Immune Response and Inflammation Chapter 16 - Antiinflammatory, Antiarthritis, and Related Agents Chapter 17 - Immune Modulators Chapter 18 - Vaccines and Sera Chapter 19 - Introduction to Nerves and the Nervous System Chapter 20 - Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Agents Chapter 21 - Antidepressant Agents Chapter 22 - Psychotherapeutic Agents Chapter 23 - Antiseizure Agents Chapter 24 - Antiparkinsonism Agents Chapter 25 - Muscle Relaxants Chapter 26 - Narcotics, Narcotic Antagonists, and Antimigraine Agents Chapter 27 - General and Local Anesthetic Agents Chapter 28 - Neuromuscular Junction Blocking Agents Chapter 29 - Introduction to the Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 30 - Adrenergic Agonists Chapter 31 - Adrenergic Antagonists Chapter 32 - Cholinergic Agonists Chapter 33 - Anticholinergic Agents Chapter 34 - Introduction to the Endocrine System Chapter 35 - Hypothalamic and Pituitary Agents Chapter 36 - Adrenocortical Agents Chapter 37 - Thyroid and Parathyroid Agents Chapter 38 - Agents to Control Blood Glucose Levels Chapter 39 - Introduction to the Reproductive System Chapter 40 - Drugs Affecting the Female Reproductive System Chapter 41 - Drugs Affecting the Male Reproductive System Chapter 42 - Introduction to the Cardiovascular System Chapter 43 - Drugs Affecting Blood Pressure Chapter 44 - Agents for Treating Heart Failure Chapter 45 - Antiarrhythmic Agents Chapter 46 - Antianginal Agents Chapter 47 - Lipid-Lowering Agents Chapter 48 - Drugs Affecting Blood Coagulation Chapter 49 - Drugs Used to Treat Anemias Chapter 50 - Introduction to the Renal System Test Bank - Focus on Nursing Pharmacology (8th Edition by Karch) 2 Chapter 51 - Diuretic Agents Chapter 52 - Drugs Affecting the Urinary Tract and the Bladder Chapter 53 - Introduction to the Respiratory System Chapter 54 - Drugs Acting on the Upper Respiratory Tract Chapter 55 - Drugs Acting on the Lower Respiratory Tract Chapter 56 - Introduction to the Gastrointestinal System Chapter 57 - Drugs Affecting Gastrointestinal Secretions Chapter 58 - Drugs Affecting Gastrointestinal Motility Chapter 59 - Antiemetic Agents
Test Bank for Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice Nurse Prescribers 4th Edition by Woo Chapter 1. The Role of the Nurse Practitioner Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. Nurse practitioner prescriptive authority is regulated by:
____ 2. The benefits to the patient of having an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) prescriber include:
|1.||The National Council of State Boards of Nursing|
|2.||The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration|
|3.||The State Board of Nursing for each state|
|4.||The State Board of Pharmacy|
____ 3. Clinical judgment in prescribing includes:
|1.||Nurses know more about Pharmacology than other prescribers because they take it both in their basic nursing program and in their APRN program.|
|2.||Nurses care for the patient from a holistic approach and include the patient in decision making regarding their care.|
|3.||APRNs are less likely to prescribe narcotics and other controlled substances.|
|4.||APRNs are able to prescribe independently in all states, whereas a physician’s assistant needs to have a physician supervising their practice.|
____ 4. Criteria for choosing an effective drug for a disorder include:
|1.||Factoring in the cost to the patient of the medication prescribed|
|2.||Always prescribing the newest medication available for the disease process|
|3.||Handing out drug samples to poor patients|
|4.||Prescribing all generic medications to cut costs|
____ 5. Nurse practitioner practice may thrive under health-care reform because of:
|1.||Asking the patient what drug they think would work best for them|
|2.||Consulting nationally recognized guidelines for disease management|
|3.||Prescribing medications that are available as samples before writing a prescription|
|4.||Following U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration guidelines for prescribing|
Chapter 1. The Role of the Nurse Practitioner Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE
|1.||The demonstrated ability of nurse practitioners to control costs and improve patient outcomes|
|2.||The fact that nurse practitioners will be able to practice independently|
|3.||The fact that nurse practitioners will have full reimbursement under health-care reform|
|4.||The ability to shift accountability for Medicaid to the state level|
- ANS: 3 PTS: 1
- ANS: 2 PTS: 1
- ANS: 1 PTS: 1
- ANS: 2 PTS: 1
- ANS: 1 PTS: 1
Test Bank for Wongs Nursing Care of Infants and Children 11th Edition by Hockenberry
ISBN-10: 032354939X, ISBN-13: 9780323549394 Table of Contents Section I: Children, Their Families, and the Nurse 1. Perspectives of Pediatric Nursing 2. Social, Cultural, Religious, and Family Influences on Child Health Promotion 3. Hereditary Influences on Health Promotion of the Child and Family Section II: Childhood and Family Assessment 4. Communication, Physical, and Developmental Assessment of the Child and Family 5. Pain in Children: Significance, Assessment, and Management Strategies 6. Childhood Communicable and Infectious Diseases Section III: Family-Centered Care of the Newborn 7. Health Promotion of the Newborn and Family 8. Health Problems of the Newborn 9. The High-Risk Newborn and Family Section IV: Family-Centered Care of the Infant 10. Health Promotion of the Infant and Family 11. Health Problems of the Infant Section V: Family-Centered Care of the Toddler and Preschooler 12. Health Promotion of the Toddler and Family 13. Health Promotion of the Preschooler and Family 14. Health Problems of Early Childhood Section VI: Family-Centered Care of the School-Age Child 15. Health Promotion of the School-Age Child and Family 16. Health Problems of the School-Age Child Section VII: Family-Centered Care of the Adolescent 17. Health Promotion of the Adolescent and Family 18. Health Problems of the Adolescent Section VIII: Family-Centered Care of the Child with Special Needs 19. Impact of Chronic Illness, Disability, or End of Life Care for the Child and Family 20. The Child with Cognitive, Sensory, or Communication Impairment Section IX: The Child Who is Hospitalized 21. Family-Centered Care of the Child During Illness and Hospitalization 22. Pediatric Nursing Interventions and Skills Section X: Childhood Nutrition and Elimination Problems 23. The Child with Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance 24. The Child with Renal Dysfunction 25. The Child with Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Section XI: Childhood Oxygenation Problems 26. The Child with Respiratory Dysfunction Section XII: Childhood Blood Production and Circulation Problems 27. The Child with Cardiovascular Dysfunction 28. The Child with Hematologic or Immunologic Dysfunction Section XIII: Childhood Regulatory Problems 29. The Child with Cancer 30. The Child with Cerebral Dysfunction 31. The Child with Endocrine Dysfunction Section XIV: Childhood Physical Mobility Problems 32. The Child with Integumentary Dysfunction 33. The Child with Musculoskeletal or Articular Dysfunction 34. The Child with Neuromuscular or Muscular Dysfunction
|Chapter 01: Using Evidence in Practice Perry et al.: Clinical Nursing Skills & Techniques, 9th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE |
- Evidence-based practice is a problem-solving approach to making decisions about patient care that is grounded in:
ANS: B The best evidence comes from well-designed, systematically conducted research studies described in scientific journals. Portions of a textbook often become outdated by the time it is published. Many health care settings do not have a process to help staff adopt new evidence in practice, and nurses in practice settings lack easy access to risk-management data, relying instead on tradition or convenience. Some sources of evidence do not originate from research. These include quality improvement and risk-management data; infection control data; retrospective or concurrent chart reviews; and clinicians’ expertise. Although non–research-based evidence is often very valuable, it is important that you learn to rely more on research-based evidence. DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text reference: p. 2 OBJ: Discuss the benefits of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
|a.||the latest information found in textbooks.|
|b.||systematically conducted research studies.|
|c.||tradition in clinical practice.|
|d.||quality improvement and risk-management data.|
- When evidence-based practice is used, patient care will be:
ANS: C Using your clinical expertise and considering patients’ cultures, values, and preferences ensures that you will apply available evidence in practice ethically and appropriately. Even when you use the best evidence available, application and outcomes will differ; as a nurse, you will develop critical thinking skills to determine whether evidence is relevant and appropriate. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 2 OBJ: Discuss the benefits of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
|a.||standardized for all.|
|b.||unhampered by patient culture.|
|c.||variable according to the situation.|
|d.||safe from the hazards of critical thinking.|
ANS: C C = Comparison of interest. What standard of care or current intervention do you usually use now in practice? P = Patient population of interest. Identify your patient by age, gender, ethnicity, disease, or health problem. I = Intervention of interest. What intervention (e.g., treatment, diagnostic test, and prognostic factor) do you think is worthwhile to use in practice? O = Outcome. What result (e.g., change in patient’s behavior, physical finding, and change in patient’s perception) do you wish to achieve or observe as the result of an intervention? DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text reference: p. 3 OBJ: Develop a PICO question. TOP: PICO KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
- When a PICOT question is developed, the letter that corresponds with the usual standard of care is:
- A well-developed PICOT question helps the nurse:
ANS: A The more focused a question that you ask is, the easier it is to search for evidence in the scientific literature. A well-designed PICOT question does not have to include all five elements, nor does it have to follow the PICOT sequence. Do not be satisfied with clinical routines. Always question and use critical thinking to consider better ways to provide patient care. DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 3 OBJ: Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
|a.||search for evidence.|
|b.||include all five elements of the sequence.|
|c.||find as many articles as possible in a literature search.|
|d.||accept standard clinical routines.|
- The nurse is not sure that the procedure the patient requires is the best possible for the situation. Utilizing which of the following resources would be the quickest way to review research on the topic?
ANS: D The Cochrane Community Database of Systematic Reviews is a valuable source of synthesized evidence (i.e., pre-appraised evidence). The Cochrane Database includes the full text of regularly updated systematic reviews and protocols for reviews currently happening. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed are among the most comprehensive databases and represent the scientific knowledge base of health care. DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Text reference: p. 4 OBJ: Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
|d.||The Cochrane Database|
- The nurse is getting ready to develop a plan of care for a patient who has a specific need. The best source for developing this plan of care would probably be:
ANS: C The National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC) is a database supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). It contains clinical guidelines—systematically developed statements about a plan of care for a specific set of clinical circumstances involving a specific patient population. The NGC is a valuable source when you want to develop a plan of care for a patient. The Cochrane Community Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, and CINAHL are all valuable sources of synthesized evidence (i.e., pre-appraised evidence). DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Text reference: p. 4 OBJ: Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
|a.||The Cochrane Database.|
- The nurse has done a literature search and found 25 possible articles on the topic that she is studying. To determine which of those 25 best fit her inquiry, the nurse first should look at:
ANS: A An abstract is a brief summary of an article that quickly tells you whether the article is research based or clinically based. An abstract summarizes the purpose of the study or clinical query, the major themes or findings, and the implications for nursing practice. The literature review usually gives you a good idea of how past research led to the researcher’s question. The “Methods” or “Design” section explains how a research study is organized and conducted to answer the research question or to test the hypothesis. The narrative of a manuscript differs according to the type of evidence-based article—clinical or research. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 7 OBJ: Discuss elements to review when critiquing the scientific literature. TOP: Randomized Controlled Trials KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
|b.||the literature reviews.|
|c.||the “Methods” sections.|
|d.||the narrative sections.|
- The nurse wants to determine the effects of cardiac rehabilitation program attendance on the level of postmyocardial depression for individuals who have had a myocardial infarction. The type of study that would best capture this information would be a:
ANS: B Qualitative studies examine individuals’ experiences with health problems and the contexts in which these experiences occur. A qualitative study is best in this case of an individual nurse who wants to examine the effectiveness of a local program. Randomized controlled trials involve close monitoring of control groups and treatment groups to test an intervention against the usual standard of care. Case control studies typically compare one group of subjects with a certain condition against another group without the condition, to look for associations between the condition and predictor variables. Descriptive studies focus mainly on describing the concepts under study. DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Text reference: p. 6 OBJ: Discuss ways to apply evidence in nursing practice. TOP: Randomized Controlled Trials KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)
|a.||randomized controlled trial.|
|c.||case control study.|
- Six months after an early mobility protocol was implemented, the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in patients was decreased. This is an example of what stage in the EBP process?
ANS: C After implementing a practice change, your next step is to evaluate the effect. You do this by analyzing the outcomes data that you collected during the pilot project. Outcomes evaluation tells you whether your practice change improved conditions, created no change, or worsened conditions. DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 9 OBJ: Discuss ways to apply evidence in nursing practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice KEY: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (safety and infection control) MULTIPLE RESPONSE
|a.||Asking a clinical question|
|b.||Applying the evidence|
|c.||Evaluating the practice decision|
|d.||Communicating your results|
- To use evidence-based practice appropriately, you need to collect the most relevant and best evidence and to critically appraise the evidence you gather. This process also includes: (Select all that apply.)
ANS: A, B, C, D
|a.||asking a clinical question.|
|b.||applying the evidence.|
|c.||evaluating the practice decision.|
|d.||communicating your results.|