Test bank Microbiology Fundamentals A Clinical Approach 3rd Edition Microbiology Fundamentals: A Clinical Approach, 3e (Cowan) Chapter 1 Introduction to Microbes and Their Building Blocks 1) When humans manipulate the genes of microorganisms, the process is called ________. A) bioremediation B) genetic engineering C) epidemiology D) immunology E) taxonomy 2) Which of the following is not considered a microorganism? A) Mosquito B) Protozoan C) Bacterium D) Virus E) Fungus 3) All microorganisms are best defined as organisms that ________. A) cause human disease B) lack a cell nucleus C) are infectious particles D) are too small to be seen with the unaided eye E) can only be found growing in laboratories 4) Which activity is an example of biotechnology? A) Bacteria in the soil secreting an antibiotic to kill competitors B) A microbiologist using the microscope to study bacteria C) Egyptians using moldy bread on wounds D) Escherichia coli producing human insulin E) Public health officials monitoring diseases in a community 5) Living things ordinarily too small to be seen with the unaided eye are termed ________. A) bacteria B) viruses C) parasites D) microorganisms E) prokaryotes 6) The microorganisms that recycle nutrients by breaking down dead matter and wastes are called ________. A) decomposers B) prokaryotes C) pathogens D) eukaryotes E) fermenters NURSINGTB.COM MICROBIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS A CLINICAL APPROACH 3RD EDITION COWAN TEST BANKNURSINGTB.COM 2 Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill 7) Cells, like bacteria and archaea, that do not have a nucleus in their cells have traditionally been called ________. A) decomposers B) prokaryotes C) pathogens D) eukaryotes E) fermenters 8) The first cells appeared about ________ billion years ago. A) 5.2 B) 4.6 C) 3.8 D) 2.9 E) 1.5 9) Which of the following is not a human use of microorganisms? A) Making bread B) Treating water and sewage C) Manufacturing copper wire D) Mass producing antibiotics E) Cleaning up oil spills 10) Using microbes to detoxify a site contaminated with heavy metals is an example of ________. A) biotechnology B) bioremediation C) decomposition D) immunology E) epidemiology 11) Disease-causing microorganisms are called ________. A) decomposers B) prokaryotes C) pathogens D) eukaryotes E) fermenters 12) The most prevalent worldwide infectious diseases are ________. A) AIDS-related diseases B) diarrheal diseases C) malaria diseases D) measles E) respiratory diseases NURSINGTB.COM MICROBIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS A CLINICAL APPROACH 3RD EDITION COWAN TEST BANKNURSINGTB.COM 3 Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill 13) Which of the following is a unique characteristic of viruses that distinguishes them from the other major groups of microorganisms? A) Cause human disease B) Lack a nucleus C) Cannot be seen without a microscope D) Contain genetic material E) Lack cell structure 14) Helminths are ________. A) bacteria B) protozoa C) molds D) parasitic worms E) infectious particles 15) Which group of microorganisms is composed only of hereditary material wrapped in a protein covering? A) Viruses B) Bacteria C) Parasites D) Fungi E) Helminths 16) Which statement correctly compares the sizes of different microorganisms? A) Bacteria are larger than viruses B) Bacteria are larger than eukaryotic microorganisms C) Eukaryotic microorganisms are smaller than viruses D) Archaea are larger than eukaryotic microorganisms but smaller than bacteria 17) The Dutch merchant who made and used quality magnifying lenses to see and record microorganisms was ________. A) Francesco Redi B) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek C) Louis Pasteur D) Joseph Lister E) Robert Koch 18) Koch's postulates are criteria used to establish that A) microbes are found on dust particles. B) a specific microbe is the cause of a specific disease. C) life forms can only arise from preexisting life forms. D) a specific microbe should be classified in a specific kingdom. E) microbes can be used to clean up toxic spills. NURSINGTB.COM MICROBIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS A CLINICAL APPROACH 3RD EDITION COWAN TEST BANKNURSINGTB.COM 4 Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill 19) The surgeon who advocated using disinfectants on hands and in the air prior to surgery was ________. A) Joseph Lister B) Ignaz Semmelweis C) Robert Koch D) Louis Pasteur E) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 20) Sterility refers to A) being pathogen free. B) having an absence of spores. C) having an absence of any life forms and viral particles. D) being pasteurized. E) being homogenized. 21) Which scientist showed that anthrax was caused by the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis? A) Joseph Lister B) Ignaz Semmelweis C) Robert Koch D) Louis Pasteur E) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 22) If you were a microbiologist in 1950, which of the following scientific principles would you already know? A) Aseptic techniques could reduce the number of wound infections in the surgical setting. B) Biofilms can form on implanted objects in the human body and be responsible for infection. C) Enzymes found in bacteria can be used to cut DNA. D) Very little DNA is transcribed into RNA that is then translated into proteins. 23) Taxonomy does not involve ________. A) nomenclature B) classification C) taxa D) identification E) common name 24) Which scientific field is involved in the identification, classification, and naming of organisms? A) Nomenclature B) Taxonomy C) Phylogeny D) Woesean classification E) None of the choices are correct. NURSINGTB.COM MICROBIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS A CLINICAL APPROACH 3RD EDITION COWAN TEST BANKNURSINGTB.COM 5 Copyright © 2019 McGraw-Hill 25) The orderly arrangement of organisms into a hierarchy of taxa is called ________. A) classification B) identification C) nomenclature D) experimentation E) biotechnology 26) Which of the following is a taxon that contains all the other taxa listed? A) Species B) Phylum C) Kingdom D) Genus E) Family 27) The smallest and most significant taxon is ________. A) genus B) species C) kingdom D) family E) phylum
|Chapter 01: Microbial Taxonomy MULTIPLE CHOICE|
- Taxonomy can be described as a system that:
ANS: A Taxonomy is a system that consistently classifies, names, and identifies microorganisms. Although organisms have genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, as well as cellular and colonial characteristics, answer A best describes the term taxonomy. REF: 1
|a.||classifies, names, and identifies microorganisms in a consistent manner.|
|b.||classifies microorganisms, based on their genetic makeup.|
|c.||classifies microorganisms, based on their phenotypic makeup.|
|d.||classifies microorganisms, based on their cellular and colonial traits.|
- The most basic taxonomic group that can be defined as a collection of bacterial strains that share many common physiologic and genetic features is:
ANS: B Bacteria are classified into the same species, based on their physiologic and genetic similarities and their differences from bacteria in other species. REF: 2
- Colonial and microscopic morphologic properties, along with the pigmentation of colonies, would belong to a microorganism group of ________ characteristics.
ANS: C Phenotypic characteristics are the observable properties of the subject. REF: 3-4
- Which binomial name is correctly written?
ANS: A The genus should be capitalized, and the species should be in lowercase. The entire name is either italicized or underlined. REF: 2
- The use of a double genus in a microorganism’s label, such as Burkholderia (Pseudomonas), indicates that the bacterium:
ANS: C A name of an organism may change as scientists learn more about the organism. An older name is often included in parentheses next to the current name to alleviate confusion about the identity of the organism. REF: 3
|a.||does not fit well in either group but has some characteristics of both groups.|
|b.||is a genetic cross between the two groups.|
|c.||has been moved from one genus (Pseudomonas) to another genus (Burkholderia).|
|d.||has been moved from one genus (Burkholderia) to another genus (Pseudomonas).|
- A bacterium that has been moved from one genus (Pseudomonas) to another genus (Burkholderia) would be correctly noted as which one of the following?
ANS: B The name of an organism may change as scientists learn more about the organism. An older name is often included in parentheses next to the current name to alleviate confusion about the identity of the organism. REF: 3
|c.||Pseudomonas, formerly Burkholderia|
|d.||Burkholderia, formerly Pseudomonas|
- The taxon that is composed of similar species that have several important features in common but differ sufficiently to still maintain their status as individual species is which one of the following?
ANS: D The genus is composed of similar species. REF: 2
- Which binomial name is correctly written?
ANS: C The genus should be capitalized, and the species should be in lowercase. The entire name is either italicized or underlined. REF: 2
- An example of an organism’s genotypic characteristic is its:
ANS: C The organism’s nucleic acid composition—deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)—is a genotypic characteristic. All of the other choices are phenotypic characteristics. REF: 3
|a.||macroscopic morphologic structure.|
|b.||microscopic morphologic structure.|
|c.||nucleic acid composition.|
- An organism is serologically identified in the clinical laboratory. This is an example of which phenotypic property?
ANS: B Serologic methods examine the organism’s antigenic properties.
|d.||Nucleic acid sequence analysis|
Test Bank for Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology 5th Edition by Mahon Table of Contents PART I: INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY 1. Bacterial Cell Structure, Physiology, Metabolism, and Genetics 2. Host-Parasite Interaction 3. The Laboratory Role in Infection Control 4. Control of Microorganisms 5. Performance Improvement in the Microbiology Laboratory 6. Specimen Collection and Processing 7. Microscopic Examination of Materials from Infected Sites 8. Use of Colony Morphology for the Presumptive Identification of Microorganisms 9. Biochemical Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria 10. Immunodiagnosis of Infectious Diseases 11. Applications of Molecular Diagnostics 12. Antimicrobial Agent Mechanisms of Action and Resistance 13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing PART II: LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION OF SIGNIFICANT ISOLATES 14. Staphylococci 15. Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Other Catalase-Negative Gram-Positive Cocci 16. Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli 17. Neisseria Species and Moraxella catarrhalis 18. Haemophilus and Other Fastidious Gram-Negative Bacilli 19. Enterobacteriaceae 20. Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and Campylobacter Species 21. Nonfermenting and Miscellaneous Gram-Negative Bacilli 22. Anaerobes of Clinical Importance 23. The Spirochetes 24. Chlamydia and Rickettsia 25. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma 26. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Other Nontuberculosis Mycobacteria 27. Medically Significant Fungi 28. Diagnostic Parasitology 29. Clinical Virology 30. Agents of Bioterror 31. Biofilms: Architects of Disease PART III: LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES: AN ORGAN SYSTEM APPROACH TO DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY 32. Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections 33. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections 34. Gastrointestinal Infections and Food Poisoning 35. Infections of the Central Nervous System 36. Bacteremia and Sepsis 37. Urinary Tract Infections 38. Genital Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases 39. Infections in Special Populations 40. Zoonotic Diseases 41. Ocular Infections
Bushong: Radiologic Science for Technologists: Physics, Biology, and Protection, 11th Edition
- Matter is measured in .
- electron volts
Matter is measured in kilograms. DIF: Easy REF: p. 3 OBJ: Recognize the unit of measurement for matter.
- Energy is measured in .
- electron volts
- B or C
Energy is measured in joules or electron volts. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 4 OBJ: Recognize the unit of measurement for energy.
- Atoms and molecules are the fundamental building blocks of .
Atoms and molecules are the fundamental building blocks of matter. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 3 OBJ: List the fundamental building blocks of matter.
- Ice and steam are examples of two forms of .
Ice and steam are examples of two forms of matter. DIF: Difficult REF: p. 4 OBJ: Describe states of matter.
- The formula E=mc2 is the basis for the theory that led to the development of .
- electromagnetic radiation
- nuclear power
- cathode ray tubes
The formula E=mc2 is the basis for the theory that led to the development of nuclear power. DIF: Difficult REF: p. 5 OBJ: Understand the theory of energy-mass equivalence.
- Radio waves, light, and x-rays are all examples of energy.
Electromagnetic energy includes radio waves, light, and x-rays as well as other parts of the spectrum. DIF: Difficult REF: p. 4 OBJ: List types of electromagnetic energy.
- A moving object has energy.
A moving object has kinetic energy. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 4 OBJ: Identify various forms of energy.
- What is the removal of an electron from an atom called?
- Pair production
ANS: A The removal of an electron from an atom is called ionization. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 5 OBJ: Understand ionization of matter.
- Ionizing radiation is capable of removing from atoms as it passes through the matter.
ANS: C Ionizing radiation is capable of removing electrons from atoms as it passes through the matter. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 5 OBJ: Describe the process of ionization by ionizing radiation.
- The energy of x-rays is .
ANS: D X-rays are a form of electromagnetic energy. DIF: Difficult REF: p. 5 OBJ: List the category of energy of x-rays.
- The biggest source of man-made ionizing radiation exposure to the public is .
- atomic fallout
- diagnostic x-rays
- smoke detectors
- nuclear power plants
ANS: B Medical x-ray exposure is the biggest source of man-made radiation. DIF: Difficult REF: p. 6 OBJ: Understand the relative intensity of ionizing radiation from various sources.
- In the United States, we are exposed to mR/year of ionizing radiation from the natural environment.
a. 0–5 b. 5–20 c. 20–90 d. 100–300 ANS: C We are exposed to 20–90 mR/yr of ionizing radiation from natural environmental sources in the United States. DIF: Difficult REF: p. 6 OBJ: Understand the amount of natural environmental ionizing radiation to which the public is exposed in the United States.
- The basic quantities measured in mechanics are , , and .
- volume, length, meters
- mass, length, time
- radioactivity, dose, exposure
- meters, kilos, seconds
ANS: B The basic quantities measured in mechanics are mass, length, and time. DIF: Easy REF: p. 12 OBJ: List the basic quantities measured in mechanics.
- An example of a derived quantity in mechanical physics is a .
ANS: D Volume is a derived unit. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 12 OBJ: Recognize an example of a derived quantity.
ANS: C Radioactivity is a special quantity of radiologic science. DIF: Easy REF: p. 14 OBJ: Recognize radioactivity as a special quantity of radiologic science.
- is a special quantity of radiologic science.
ANS: D Exposure is measured in units of grays. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 14 OBJ: Understand units of radiation measurement.
- Exposure is measured in units of .
ANS: A Today, radiology is considered to be a safe occupation because of effective radiation protection practices. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 10 OBJ: Understand the risk of an occupation in radiology.
- Today, radiology is considered to be a(n) occupation.
ANS: B ALARA means As Low As Reasonably Achievable. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 10 OBJ: Understand the meaning of ALARA.
- What does ALARA mean?
- All Level Alert Radiation Accident
- As Low As Reasonably Achievable
- Always Leave A Restricted Area
- As Low As Regulations Allow
a. 1890s b. 1920s c. 1970s d. 1990s ANS: C Computed tomography was developed in the 1970s. DIF: Moderate REF: p. 10 OBJ: Relate history of the development of computed tomography.
- Computed tomography was developed in the .
- Filtration is used to .
- absorb low-energy x-rays
- remove high-energy x-rays
- restrict the useful beam to the body part imaged
- fabricate gonadal shields